3 von 3 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
Think Outside Boundary,
Von Ein Kunde
Rezension bezieht sich auf: Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Taschenbuch)
In general, this book uses many examples to illustrate the concept of "paradigm" and to support his argument or personal attitudes towards the scientific community and educational system (or textbook addiction in my words). In this book, Kuhn raises a critical question that is how development through revolutions can be compatible with the apparently unique character of scientific progress.
Though considerable examples have been illustrated to explain the importance of paradigm on normal science, there is no clear and specific definition on "paradigm." In contrast, the concept of "paradigm" varies from one chapter to another. Examples like shared paradigms (p.11) and community's paradigms (p.43). When reading this book, we must pay attention on what situations Kuhn refers to.
Paradigm itself includes the concepts (elements or substances) of rules, laws, models and the like. It also takes into account of social psychology, metaphysics, and the other disciplines. The occurrence of paradigm testing is due to the failure to solve crisis. And the testing occurs only when there is competition between two rival paradigms. The transformation process is not simply bounded by what Popper's falsification (p.146) or probability verification (p.145). However, in Kuhn's point of view, paradigms and theories are not merely man-made interpretations of given data. A distinction should be made between theories and facts. Scientists assume theories; they know facts to be true, within acceptable limits of confidence. As time advances, they replace one theory with another, arguably a better one. What should be beyond argument is that there is an accretion of known facts.
A scientific revolution - revolution means a complete change, especially in methods of government when caused by the overthrow of one system by force [in accordance with Oxford Dictionary]. In fact, science is not a system of certain, or well-established, statements; nor is it a system which steadily advances towards an equilibrium state. Besides, science has more than mere biological survival value. Science is a means to acquire knowledge and to search for truth. That's what I believe scientific discovery should be. Revolution provides the underlying meaning of what Kuhn wants to see in changing the lifelong resistance of scientific community. Nothing important to his argument depends on crisis is being an absolute prerequisite to revolutions.
Undoubtedly, the role for history is the domain of this book. The historian must compare the community's paradigms with each other and with its current research reports so as to discover any isolate elements explicitly or implicitly. The importance of paradigms is to determine normal science without intervention of discoverable rules. I agree with what Kuhn's belief - transforming paradigms is the only way to make normal science progress. However, the problem is that science, lives in the physical world, that crude world of contradictory, non-linear material reality. There is no definite answer even we have a set of nice paradigms.