- Taschenbuch: 88 Seiten
- Verlag: Fordham Univ Pr; Auflage: Revised (1. August 1985)
- Sprache: Englisch
- ISBN-10: 082321138X
- ISBN-13: 978-0823211388
- Größe und/oder Gewicht: 19,8 x 1 x 12,7 cm
- Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: 3 Kundenrezensionen
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Symbolism: Its Meaning and Effect (Englisch) Taschenbuch – 1. August 1985
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Über den Autor und weitere Mitwirkende
Alfred North Whitehead (February 1861 - 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.
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The human mind functions symbolically when some components of its experience elicit consciousness, emotions and beliefs related to other components of its experience. The former cluster of components is the symbols whilst the latter constitutes the meanings. 'Symbolic reference' is Whitehead's designation for the transference from symbol to meaning. Understanding the mind requires an explanation of how we can truly know, how we can err, and how we can distinguish truth from error, by investigating perception.
Whitehead distinguishes 'Direct Recognition' from 'Symbolic Reference,' illustrating that all symbolism may be reduced to trains of symbolic reference which connect percepts in alternative modes of direct recognition. Components of experience are both symbols & meanings. Examples of the inversion abound in language. A word is a symbol that can be either written or spoken. Sometimes a written word may suggest the corresponding spoken word and its sound may suggest a meaning. In such a case, the written word is a symbol and its meaning is the spoken word, and the spoken word is a symbol and its meaning is the dictionary definition of the word, spoken or written.
But often the written word effects its purpose without the intervention of the spoken. In this case the written directly symbolizes the dictionary meaning. Otherwise the written suggests both the spoken word as well as the meaning whilst the symbolic reference is made more definite by additional reference of the spoken word to the same meaning. Poetry proves that in the use of language there's a double symbolic reference: from things to words by the speaker and from words to things by the listener.
Immediate perception of the external world is defined as 'presentational immediacy' which explains why contemporary events are relevant to each other whilst simultaneously preserving mutual independence. This relevance amid independence is the peculiar character of contemporaneousness. The universe discloses itself as a community of things, real in the same sense that we are. Abstraction expresses nature's mode of interaction and isn't merely mental. He calls the other purely perceptive mode of experience 'causal efficacy'.
Symbolic reference interacts closely with conceptual analysis. Conceptual analysis as third mode of experience introduces components analyzable into actual things in the real world plus abstract attributes, qualities and relations. By symbolic reference the various actualities disclosed by the modes of pure perception are either identified or correlated together as interrelated elements. Thus the result of symbolic reference is what the actual world is: that datum that produces feelings, emotions, actions and finally the topic for conscious recognition when conceptual analysis comes into play. Most of our perception is due to the enhanced subtlety arising from concurrent conceptual analysis.
Whitehead points out that Hume views time as pure succession rather than the derivation of one state from another. Time in the concrete is the conformation of later to earlier; pure succession is an abstraction from the relationship of settled past to derivative present. The notion of succession reflects that of colour. There's no mere colour but always a particular colour like blue; there's no pure succession but always some particular relational aspect in which succession occurs. He concludes that Hume's doctrine is great philosophy but not common sense as it fails the test of obvious verification.
Kantians admit that causal efficacy is a factor in the phenomenal world but deny that it belongs to the data presupposed in perception; it resorts instead to ways of thinking about data. The phenomenal world, as in consciousness, is a complex of coherent judgments, framed according to fixed categories of thought, and with a content constituted by given data organized according to fixed forms of intuition. This Kantian doctrine accepts Hume's naïve presupposition of `simple occurrence' for the data, being the assumption of `simple location' by applying it to space as well as time.
Humeans & Kantians have diverse but allied objections to the notion of any direct perception of causal efficacy. Both schools find 'causal efficacy' to be an importation into the data, of a way of thinking about or judging the data. One school calls it a habit, the other a category of thought. The logical difficulties attending the direct perception of causal efficacy have been shown to depend on the assumption that time is merely the generic notion of pure succession. This is an example of the Fallacy of Misplaced Concreteness.
The final chapter explores the dynamics of symbolism which inheres in the very texture of society. By means of an elaborate system of symbolic transference humanity draws on the past to enter the future. But each symbolic transfer may involve an arbitrary imputation that is dangerous. As a community evolves, rules need revision. The art of a free society involves the maintenance of the symbolic code and occasional bold revisions to ensure the code continues to serve the purposes of enlightened reason. Societies which fail to combine reverence to their symbols with freedom of revision either explode into anarchy or stagnate and regress under the burdens of the past.
The author pursues the thesis that symbolism is a key factor in the way we function as a result of direct knowledge. Distinguishing 'Direct Recognition' from 'Symbolic Reference,' he shows that all symbolism may be reduced to trains of reference which connect percepts in alternative modes of direct recognition.
Immediate perception of the external world is defined as 'presentational immediacy' whilst the other purely perceptive mode of experience is 'causal efficacy'. Conceptual analysis as third mode of experience introduces analyzable components into actual things in the real world, plus abstract attributes, qualities and relations.
He identifies the flaws of Hume & Kant in their objections to the notion of the direct perception of causal efficacy. Both schools find causal efficacy to be an importation into the data, a way of thinking about or evaluating the data. Hume's assumption that time is merely the generic notion of pure succession is an example of the Fallacy of Misplaced Concreteness. Where Hume errs with time, the Kantians err with space and time.
Whitehead also neatly assesses the best and the worst of Burke's thought with reference to his writings on the American & French revolutions, showing that Burke's revulsion at the excesses of the French one played a part in his subsequent regrettable opposition to all progressive reform and his embrace of the "prejudice" concept.
In order to appreciate the function of symbolism in the life of society one must scrutinize the binding and disruptive forces at work. The advantages of social cohesion and the contrary stimulus of heterogeneity bestowed by freedom are equally important and need to be balanced. Whereas the force of instinct suppresses individuality, symbols simultaneously preserve the health of the community and the freedom of the individual. Symbolic expression preserves society by tying instinct to emotion thus assisting reason to dissect the particular instinct.
Symbolism makes space for the individual within society and at the same time promotes stability and an environment for co-operation between individuals. Whitehead carefully categorizes action as instinctive, reflexive and symbolically conditioned. Pure instinctive action is the response of an organism to pure causal efficacy. Reflex action is a relapse towards a more complex type of instinct by those who have experienced symbolically conditioned action.
The great process philosopher argues that symbolism needs to be constantly pruned and modified by new forms of expression. Old symbols must be remolded in accordance with changes in social structure. The rituals and ceremonies associated with symbolic concepts tend to remain unchanged or become frozen in time while their interpretations are in constant flux. When instinct is not expressed, it becomes toxic as it festers underground, unknown and unexamined by the the force of reason.
Linguistic change is a good example; new words appear, old ones fall into disuse and others undergo shifts of meaning. Language is a living process built on layers of dead metaphor. Sounds and expressions participate in this process of change so in a way, expression is symbolism. A language unites a nation whilst permitting individual opinion including those contrary to the consensus.
Symbolic transference may involve arbitrary and malevolent attributions. Whitehead's analysis reminded me of Chantal Delsol's observation on the current intellectual climate in Europe. Without a sense of purpose, mankind embraces the fatuous as revealed in banal and clichéd discourse. Delsol calls it the "clandestine" ideology of our time, overt ideology having become taboo. This black market substitute is sickly sentimental, arbitrary and intolerant despite furious claims to the contrary.
With reference to the band Rammstein whose act is a particularly grotesque example of what Delsol terms "black market nationalism," Claire Berlinski reveals what the repression of profound instincts leads to. This brilliant analysis, simultaneously hilarious and horrifying, encompasses translations of their lyrics, their use of Leni Riefenstahl footage, their album cover imagery, videos of their songs and the nature of their live performances.
As a community changes, rules and cultural norms need to be revised in the light of reason. When old symbolic systems are rapidly discarded as in the case of the 20th century's secular salvationist ideologies or "isms", violent revolution, oppression and mass murder ensue. Stagnation which leads to regression brings about the same toxic fruits of tyranny and terror that we are witnessing today in the Jihad.
Both rigidity and disruption lead to human sacrifice. Preserving a free society thus requires respect for tradition combined with the constant reappraisal and revision of symbolic codes. Michael Polanyi's view of the role of tradition in his little classic Science, Faith and Society is quite enlightening in this regard. I also recommend Eric Hoffer's The True Believer, a seminal study of the nature of mass movements.
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The Kantian element of Whitehead can be seen in his epistemology. While the nature of the world can be construed in many analytical ways, Whitehead believes that we know nothing but the empirical world and his metaphysical ultimates.
Any interpretation of sense-experience must arise from the present and from the empirical world. In this way, history must presuppose a metaphysic. However, it does not seem that Whitehead is entirely an empiricist, though that is where the brunt of his epistemological stance lies. For example, because an occasion is related to the world, to God and to the forms, it has access, in a sense, to these forms or eternal objects/receptacle, which are given by God and sorted for relevance to the occasion in question.
To get an adequate account of "human mentality" means several things must be examined. First, how one can know correctly. Secondly, how one can be wrong, and lastly how we distinguish truth from error (7). Whitehead believes there is a type of "mental functioning" that automatically reveals knowledge of a fact. Another type of mental functioning relies on this indubitable functioning and is fallible. This type of functioning is "only trustworthy by reason of its satisfaction of certain criteria provided by the first type of functioning" (7). Whitehead calls the first type "Direct Recognition" and the second type "Symbolic Reference" (7).
Whitehead defines symbolism in terms of how the brain is functioning. He writes, "The human mind is functioning symbolically when some components of its experience elicit consciousness, beliefs, emotions, and usages, respecting other components of its experience. The former set of components are the `symbols', and the latter set constitute the `meaning' of symbols" (7-8). Direct experience elicits some type of response by the organism and the organism uses the symbols (objects, words, etc) from the initial direct experience to apply to other areas of its experience. He terms this transition of symbol to meaning "Symbolic Reference" (8). Symbolic reference requires a relationship between the symbol and meaning. It cannot be arbitrary. It requires common ground that "cannot be expressed without reference to the perfected percipient" and the active synthetic activity of the occasion in question (9). While the relationship between symbol and meaning cannot be arbitrary, there are also no such things as natural symbols - symbols that would function as natural, universal symbols. "There are no components of experience which are symbols or only meanings" (10). This symbolic reference is a kind of two-way street for Whitehead. For example, in using language, symbols are used in a kind of double fashion: "from things to words on the part of the speaker, and from words back to things on the part of the listener" (12).
Experience, for Whitehead, is not something passive. It is active; it is something that is done by the occasion. Symbolic Reference is something that must be done by an active agent. There must be an "active synthetic element" (8). This active synthetic element, or activity of an occasion arises because of the nature of the occasion. Since an actual occasion is an always becoming, concrescing event, the activity of an occasion in perception is, in a sense, self-creating (9). This active synthetic part played by the occasion is reminiscent of Kant and the categories. For Kant, the categories play an active role in how we experience the world. There is something similar in Whitehead. He writes, ". . . the colour and the spatial perspective are abstract elements, characterizing the concrete way in which the wall enters into our experience" (15). It is an abstraction that makes the object appear as an `other.' The fundamental, ontological relationship is already in the experience. One occasion or group of occasion experiences another group of occasions and abstracts extension and color from the other set. But the reality is that this other set is simply another group of occasions, perishing and becoming as the first group is perishing and becoming. For one society to perceive another society in this way means that the perceiving society must deny or "discard" the fundamental relationship between both societies or occasions (15-16). In the sense that all occasions are connected by this relationship, nothing happens independently of anything else. However, because of this type of perception and abstraction, it seems that things really are independent of one another. "In this sense", Whitehead writes, "contemporary events happen independently" (16). He terms this mode of experience "Presentational Immediacy" (16). Presentational immediacy expresses how "things" are related to one another and at the same time, seem to preserve a mutual independence" (16).
Whitehead listed three main facts about presentational immediacy. First, he said that ". . . the sense-data involved depend on the percipient organism and its spatial relations to the perceived organisms" (23). Secondly, the world one sees appears to be extended and full of "things". Lastly he said that presentational immediacy is only present in higher level organisms (23). So, this image of extension always accompanies presentational immediacy. They are bound together. The reality of extension and spatial things is only appearance. Whitehead writes, "In this appearance the world discloses itself to be a community of actual things, which are actual in the same sense as we are" (21). The medium through which this happens is what are generally termed "qualities". These qualities may or may not be a part of the actual world as they can "with equal truth be described as our sensations or as the qualities of the actual things which we perceive" (21-22). Qualities themselves are "relational between the perceiving subject and the perceived things" (22). One must abstract qualities from subjects themselves. Extension is the "scheme of the morphology of the complex organisms forming the community of the contemporary world" (22). All of this means that "sense-data . . . introduce[s] the extended physical entities into our experience under perspectives provided by this spatial scheme" (22).
Presentational immediacy is something that is somewhat controllable by the person. At one moment in time a person experiences all kinds of emotions, feelings etc., that pick and choose such things to focus on. Differing emotions at various times affect the way one perceives things by presentational immediacy. There is a difference between the "thing" existing in its own right and the way it is perceived by presentational immediacy. Whitehead says, " . . . presentational immediacy is the peculiar way in which contemporary things are `objectively' in our experience, and that among the abstract entities which constitute factors in the mode of introduction are those abstractions usually called sense-data . . ." (25). This objectification in presentational immediacy argues against the idea of a Cartesian world. The very objectification is an "abstraction" (25). This abstraction is "nature's mode of interaction " (26). The abstraction that is done means that the thought is conforming itself to nature. The abstraction and analysis have to be held together: "Synthesis and analysis require each other" (26). Whitehead's particular ontology solves the problem of trying to synthesize various, unrelated substances. Because the fundamental level of reality is process or activity, an occasion's nature "consists in its relevance to other things, and its individuality consists in its synthesis of other things so far as they are relevant to it" (26).
The other mode of symbolic reference Whitehead calls "Causal Efficacy". Hume attempted to lay a groundwork for a purely empiricist notion of knowledge of sense-data. However, in his system, there is no way to account for the present being anything similar to the past. This is shown in his doctrine of causation and other places. For Hume, time is just a succession of events, apparently unrelated to one another. The question of course, is how, on an empiricist framework, the empiricist can account for the present in terms of the past. Or to put it another way, "What does the present have in common with the past?". Whitehead saw this gap in Hume's epistemology and sought his remedy through the idea of causal efficacy. Whitehead said, " . . . what is already given for experience can only be derived from that natural potentiality which shapes a particular experience . . ." If there is no connection between the past and the present, then the present is all we "have", and there is no basis for why anything remains the same, yet it always seems to. Presentational immediacy works in the realm of extension and causal efficacy works in the realm of time. The past occasions "impose" themselves upon the present: "In the mode of causal efficacy they exhibit the almost instantaneously precedent bodily organs as imposing their characters on the experience in question" (50). This is how one can be sure the present will resemble the past.
Presentational immediacy is something that happens "within" us. The abstraction involved takes place within the occasion. But causal efficacy is something that "arise[s] from without us" (58). He says, " . . . the causal efficacy from the past is at least one factor giving our presentational immediacy in the present" (58). Putting these two modes together is what Whitehead called "Symbolic Reference." He says, "The synthetic activity whereby these two modes are fused into one perception is what I have called `symbolic reference'" (18). In symbolic reference, all of the sense-data can be accounted for and put together: "By symbolic reference the various actualities disclosed respectively by the two modes are either identified, or are at least correlated together as interrelated elements in our environment" (18). In other words, symbolic reference shows us what is "there." It is by the combination of these two modes that shows one "what the actual world is for us . . ." (18).
Whether or not you agree with his epistemology (and his metaphysics for that matter - they are both closely related), you have to give Whitehead credit. This a great work in the realm of epistemology and semiotics. Though somewhat limited due to its close relation to his metaphysics, it still remains incredibly valuable.