- Gebundene Ausgabe: 320 Seiten
- Verlag: Penguin Press (30. Januar 2014)
- Sprache: Englisch
- ISBN-10: 1594205655
- ISBN-13: 978-1594205651
- Vom Hersteller empfohlenes Alter: Ab 18 Jahren
- Größe und/oder Gewicht: 14,9 x 2,5 x 22,2 cm
- Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: 3 Kundenrezensionen
- Amazon Bestseller-Rang: Nr. 102.540 in Fremdsprachige Bücher (Siehe Top 100 in Fremdsprachige Bücher)
Social Physics: How Good Ideas Spread-The Lessons from a New Science (Englisch) Gebundene Ausgabe – 30. Januar 2014
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“Social Physics is filled with rich findings about what makes people tick. Using millions of data points measured over a long period of time in real settings, which Pentland calls ‘living laboratories,’ the author has monitored human behavior on an unprecedented scale…Pentland’s research also offers lessons for policymakers and business people. He advances a new way to protect privacy by creating something of a property right for personal information…Social Physics is a fascinating look at a new field by one of its principal geeks.”
John Abele, Co-Founder, Boston Scientific:
“Understanding, predicting and influencing human behavior has been the goal of social scientists (and leaders anywhere) since the beginning of time. Pentland’s Social Physics is a major contribution to this field. By using communication tracking analysis and occasionally human sensors along with big data, he and his team are evolving a new discipline with a unique taxonomy and ontology that brings a higher level of quantification and rigor to a challenging and inherently complex field. Like Surowiecki’s The Wisdom of Crowds it will spawn further work and research in a rapidly expanding new body of knowledge.”
John Seely Brown, Former Chief Scientist, Xerox Corporation and director of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC):
“Read this book and you will look at tomorrow differently. Reality mining is just the first step on an exciting new journey. Social Physics opens up the imagination to what might now be measurable and modifiable. It also hints at what may lie beyond Adam Smith’s invisible hand in helping groups, organizations and societies reach new levels of meaning creation. This is not just social analytics. It also offers pragmatic ways forward.”
Reed E. Hundt, former chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, CEO of the Coalition for Green Capital:
“From his MIT aerie, eagle-eyed Alex Pentland has seen the future. His wise and stimulating book teaches us how ideas spring up, flow, and spread. Applying his lessons, we can act collectively to solve previously intractable social, economic and political problems. We can make organizations more productive. We can even have government achieve its proper purposes, with greater fairness and less cost. As challenges like widening inequality and runaway climate change seem to exceed our ability to design solutions, Pentland’s data-driven, reality-based, yet sunny optimism about tomorrow should be eagerly welcomed by all readers.”
Stephen M. Kosslyn, Former Dean of Social Science, Harvard University; Former Director, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University; Founding Dean, Minerva Schools at KGI:
“Sandy Pentland lives in the future—and it shows. This book will not only whisk you up to speed on cutting-edge research at the interface of technology, behavioral science, and the social world, but it will also give you a good sense of what could be next. Professor Pentland brilliantly analyzes how new ideas flow and how, with the emergence of the ‘data-driven society,’ they will increasingly influence every aspect of our lives.”
Über den Autor und weitere Mitwirkende
Alex "Sandy" Pentland directs MIT’s Human Dynamics Laboratory and the MIT Media Lab Entrepreneurship Program and co-leads the World Economic Forum Big Data and Personal Data initiatives. He helped create and direct MIT’s Media Laboratory, the Media Lab Asia laboratories at the Indian Institutes of Technology, and Strong Hospital’s Center for Future Health. His research group and entrepreneurship program have spun off more than thirty companies to date. In 2012 Forbes named Pentland one of the seven most powerful data scientists in the world. His research has been featured in Nature, Science, and Harvard Business Review.
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Recently, however, new digital technology has opened up a whole new way to study human behavior. This proves to be the case since mobile devices and sensors of all kinds are now able to record a dizzying array of human activity—everything from where we go, to what we buy, to whom we interact with and for how long, to our body language, and even our moods etc. When placed in the hands of social scientists these new sources of information can prove very valuable (and are far preferable than either surveys or lab experiments); for they allow scientists to study us in our natural environments—out in the real world—and they also allow scientists to study what we actually do, rather than what we say (which are sometimes quite different).
The method of investigating human behavior in our natural environments using digital technology has come to be called reality mining, and it is revolutionizing the social sciences.
One of the pioneers and leaders in the field of reality mining is Alex Pentland, a researcher out of MIT. Pentland’s main field of interest is using reality mining to explore the properties and patterns of interactions between people—what he calls social physics. Specifically, Pentland uses reality mining to investigate the social physics in a wide range of groups and situations, from social and peer groups; to social media platforms; to institutional settings such as schools and businesses; to even whole cities. And in his new book Social Physics: How Good Ideas Spread—The Lessons from a New Science Pentland takes time out to catch us up on his findings.
One of Pentlands’s main findings thus far has to do with the importance of social interaction in influencing our behavior. Indeed, Pentland has found that much of our behavior is dominated by the influence of our close relations and the peer groups we are embedded in—everything from our diet and body weight to our political opinions and all things in between.
The influence of our social world is so great, in fact, that Pentland argues it is much more appropriate to think of ourselves as group-oriented than self-directed. This is important because Western society as a whole tends to take the opposite view. The result is that many of our policies and institutions are ill-fitted to our true nature—which leads to less than desirable outcomes. Thankfully, Pentland does offer some advice with regards to how we can re-design our policies and institutions in a way that better accommodates our nature.
A second of Pentland’s main findings has to do with how ideas and behavior spread through human interactions and groups—and also, and even more important, what kinds of interactions produce the best results in terms of generating the most creative and productive ideas.
Specifically, Pentland has found that the most creative and productive groups tend to have something very important in common: the group members have numerous interactions with highly diverse people outside of the group, and the group members are also highly connected to one another.
In terms of explaining why this pattern works best Pentland argues that the interactions outside of the group are important in becoming familiar with many different types of ideas, while the interactions within the group function to winnow out what are the best ideas, and also help build common norms of behavior and trust that allow the group to work well and cooperatively together.
I was happy to get the opportunity to learn about a very new and promising science from one of its leading practitioners. Many of the ‘living lab’ experiments outlined in the book are very interesting and I certainly learned a lot. My only complaints are that the book does have a fair bit of repetition and jumps around some, so I question the writing and organization a bit. All in all, though, a very good and interesting read about a new field that we are sure to hear more from moving forward.
IdeaFlow ist ein Konzept, dass aus Erkundung und Engagement besteht. Ein Team braucht neue Ideen von außen und muss anschließend zusammen halten um diese neuen Erkenntnisse umzusetzen und voneinander zu lernen.
Der Schreibstil ist unterhaltsam und es wird in verständlichem English beschrieben, wie die verschiedenen Studien aufgenommen wurden.
Das besondere bei den Studien ist die Nutzung von vielen Sensoren, wie Smartphones oder Aktivitätstrackern und die Beobachtung einer Gruppe über einen größeren Zeitraum. Dabei werden Millionen von Datenpunkten gesammelt. Dieses Konzept wir als Living Lab bezeichnet.
Der Autor wird nicht müde darauf hinzuweisen, dass er neben seinen Studenten, die alle namentlich genannt werden, immer auch selbst an den verschiedenen Experimenten, Doktorarbeiten und Unternehmen beteiligt ist.
Insgesamt ein wichtiges Buch für die populäre Wissenschaft, welches hilfreich ist um menschliche Strukturen zu verstehen und optimal aufzusetzen.
Nearly all of us are working in teams together with very different people and many of us have asked ourselves why some projects succeed and some become a complete desaster. In my opinion, often the so-called "chemistry" between the co-workers is a crucial aspect for success (unless the project is useless from the very first moment). So far, this might just have been a suspicion and no one was able to really measure the quantity and quality of cooperation (of course you can look at the result, but by then it might be too late) .
Alex Pentland has developed the software tools to measure and analyse the chemistry or better say the physics between people that work together or even live together in larger groups, villages or cities. Alex Pentland's working horse is the smartphone. He uses it as an intelligent sensor to monitor whom people meet, how they talk, how active they are and so on. In his book there are instructive examples that show how his analyses help to improve work-flow and outcome. Thus, social science becomes to a large extent computer science on big data.
I know that many people (especially in Germany) see much potential for misuse of the sensitive data that have to be collected for such a social physics survey. Certainly, this is a serious concern, but Alex Pentland proposes a software solution for this problem (it would lead too far to explain his idea here, you better read it in the book).
As a physicist I might be called naive in topics related to social science. But, in my opinion, this social physics ansatz is a great chance for the social sciences to achieve better results in terms of accuracy and reliability.
As a consequence of my enthusiasm I ordered more copies of the book and gave it to some of my colleagues. I am pretty optimistic that this will lead to a different view on our collaborating. Let's see what will happen ...
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Its a broad, non-academic introduction, and at times almost comes across an infomercial, an opportunity for the author to tout his many start-ups. That's OK if you want to hire Pentland or MIT, but if you're looking for a thorough introduction to the field, I'm afraid you'll have to look elsewhere.
So how do we internalize new ideas and turn them into habitual behavior? Through social physics.
Social Physics is the qualitative social science that describes reliable, mathematical connections between information and idea flow on the one hand and people’s behavior on the other. Social physics helps us understand how ideas flow from one person to another through the mechanism of social learning and how this flow of ideas ends up shaping the norms, productibvity, and creative output of companies, cities, and societies.
Mr. Pentland makes a cogent argument that our ability to survive and prosper is due to social learning and social influence at least as much as it is due to individual rationality. His research shows that people’s desires and their decisions about how to act are often, and perhaps typically, dominated by social network effects.
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