- Gebundene Ausgabe: 304 Seiten
- Verlag: Celeritas Pub; Auflage: 1 (29. Mai 2009)
- Sprache: Englisch
- ISBN-10: 1935401009
- ISBN-13: 978-1935401001
- Größe und/oder Gewicht: 15,9 x 3,2 x 22,9 cm
- Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: 4 Kundenrezensionen
- Amazon Bestseller-Rang: Nr. 250 in Fremdsprachige Bücher (Siehe Top 100 in Fremdsprachige Bücher)
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The Principles of Product Development Flow: Second Generation Lean Product Development (Englisch) Gebundene Ausgabe – 29. Mai 2009
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..the dominant paradigm for managing product development is wrong. Not just a little wrong, but wrong to its very core. Today's product development orthodoxy is broken. What's wrong? Companies are pursuing the wrong goals. They maximize capacity utilization, and wonder why cycle times are so long. They strive to conform to plan, and wonder why new obstacles constantly emerge. They try to eliminate variability, and wonder why innovation disappears. They carefully break processes into phases and gates, and wonder why things slow down instead of speeding up. Ironically, each of these actions actually hurts more than it helps.We need a different approach, one based on solid economics and real science. The heart of this approach is FLOW, and the enemy of flow is the invisible and unmeasured queues that undermine all aspects of product development performance. Stagnant piles of idle work lengthen cycle time. At the same time, they delay vital feedback and destroy process efficiency. Yet today, these queues remain unmanaged. Ninety-eight percent of product developers neither measure nor control their queues.But, how can we manage these queues and achieve real flow? It takes a bit of science. We can start with the ideas of lean manufacturing. Then, we must recognize the vast difference between the stable world of repetitive manufacturing and the high-variability world of product development. A product development process must thrive in the presence of variability. Ultimately, we must reach even further, drawing upon ideas from the Internet, transportation systems, computer operating systems, and military doctrine. This is the first book that comprehensively describes the underlying principles that create flow in product development processes, principles that have produced 5x to 10x improvements, even in mature processes. It combines a lucid explanation of the real science behind flow and a rich set of practical methods.Its underlying principles are organized into eight major areas, focusing on practical methods to: Improve economic decisions Manage queues Reduce batch size Apply WIP constraints Accelerate feedback Manage flows in the presence of variability Decentralize control Nobody is better suited to explain these ideas than Don Reinertsen. In 1997, his landmark book, Managing the Design Factory, first introduced the ideas that have become known as lean product development. His two previous books, Developing Products in Half the Time and Managing the Design Factory, have become required reading for all product developers. For over 25 years he has been recognized as a leading thinker on product development issues.This book begins where other books on product development end. It is guaranteed to change the way you think about product development. The Principles of Product Development Flow is destined to become another product development classic.
The dominant paradigm for managing product development is wrong; not just a little wrong, but wrong to its very core. Stagnant piles of idle work lengthen cycle time, delay vital feedback and destroy process efficiency. Yet today, these queues remain unmanaged. This landmark book defines a new approach, one based on solid economics and real science. It focuses on controlling the invisible and unmeasured queues that undermine all aspects of product development performance. This is the first book that comprehensively describes the underlying principles that create flow in product development processes, principles that have produced 5 to 10 times improvements, even in mature processes. It combines a detailed explanation of the real science behind flow and a rich set of practical methods. Its 175 underlying principles are organized into eight major areas. It begins where other books on product development end, and is guaranteed to change the way you think about product development.Alle Produktbeschreibungen
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Summary of the book
Don Reinertsen describes in his book 174 principles how to develop an improved, more profitable development flow.
He uses ideas from lean manufactoring, economics, queueing theory, statistics, the internet, computer operating system sesign, control engineering and maneuver warfare and adapts them to product development.
The author states that todays problems in product development are caused by failure to correctly quantify economics, blindness to queues, worship of efficiency,hostility to variability, worship of conformance, institutionalization of large batch sizes, underutilization of cadence, managing timelines instead of queues, absence of WIP constraints, inflexibility, noneconomic flow control, and centralized control.
He emphasizes that it is important to treat development decisions as economic decisions. This is in his opinion much better than chasing whichever proxy variable is popular at the moment.
Developing an economic framework and decisions rules help to quickly process the small, perishable economic decisions. The economic models and rules do not have to be perfect, because even imperfect rules improve decision making.
A decision rule that is missing in most companies today is a quantified cost of delay.
Reducing Queues is the key to improve product development performance. The hidden cost of queues are often overseen. They are the hidden source for most development waste, because they increase cycle time, expenses, variability and risk and they slow feedback, reduce quality, and decrease motivation.
Queues are linearly increased by variability and exponentially by high capacity utilization.
The structure of the queueing system affects the queues, e.g. sharing a queue for multiple servers. The Optimum queue size occurs when we balance the cost of capacity agains delay cost. The cost of queues can be reduced by a queuing discipline.
The commulated flow diagram (CFD) and Little's formula are tools to visualize and analyze queues and to relate queue size to cycle time.
Variability is, in contrast to manufactoring, not always bad in product development, because here the economic payoff-functions are frequently asymmetric.
It is important to focus on the cost of variability instead of worrying about the amount of variability.
On the other side variability can be reduced using variability pooling, creating covariance, exploiting reuse and especially by reducing batch size.
Small batch sizes are desirable to product developers, because they reduce queues, accelerate feedback and reduce risk. Decreasing transaction costs, and thus allowing smaller batch size, has an enormous economic value. "Although batch size is a mature concept in manufactoring for almost a century, today, most product developers do not even recognize batch size as an issue."
Work in Process (WIP) constraints can be used to control cycle time, since they influence queue size which determines cycle time. They are powerful because they are inexpensive, incremental and reversible. They prevent queues from reaching dangerously expensive levels of congestion. "Unfortunately, today less than 1% of product development processes are managed with WIP constraints."
Cadence and synchronization are known from lean manufacturing. Time based cadences have big advantages. Synchronization can reduce queues without changing either batch-size and capacity utilization.
By borrowing concepts form computer Operating system design, we can develop network based development processes, that use flexible sequencing, tailored routes, alternate routes, late binding and some other methods and do much better fit the needs in PD than the linear processes used today.
The goal in managing the PD process is to increase the economic outcome. We can design control systems that must deal with multiple objectives and moving targets to achieve this goal.
The concepts of leading indicators and balanced set points helps to improve the process. Product development presents us with unplanned economic opportunities that we should exploit.
Fast feedback reduces queues and accelerates learning. It can be achieved using small batches and control systems that handle small batches of information.
Accelerated feedback loops improves efficiency and gerate urgency. Slow feedback undermines urgency in PD.
It is important to have additional fast local feedback loops. They work best when de decentralize control.
There are some metrics that support flow based product development, e.g. measuring design-in-process inventory, cost of queues, aging of items in queue, batch size trends, feedback speed, decision cycle time, number of multipurpose resources, etc.
Robust systems combine centralized and decentralized control e.g using layered control and virtual centralization.
Centralized control works well for problems that are infrequent, large, or those with scale economies.
Decentralized control permits us to adapt to uncertainty. It works well for problems and opportunities that are perishable.
Decentralized control requires a set of technical skills that can be trained and practiced. It can be supported by a set of management choices that enable lateral communications and the creation of cohesive teams. Decentralized control is important and decisions rules and mission statements are necesary for it.
Ein paar Erkenntnisse aus dem Buch zum Anfüttern:
(1) Entwicklungsergebnisse sollen Profit bringen. Alle Aktivitäten sollten darauf ausgerichtet sein und sich daran messen. Stellgrößen sind insbesondere Entwicklungskosten, Herstellkosten, Produkt-Features, Time-to-Market und Risko/Versicherungen. Nicht die Optimierung einer Stellgröße bringt den Erfolg, sonders das aktive stetige Einstellen des richtigen Arbeitspunktes für alle Stellgrößen zusammen.
(2) Entscheidungskurven für a oder b ergeben U-Kurven, die in der Regel ein breites Minimum haben. Das bedeutet, solange die Entscheidung nicht auf dem Rand der U-Kurve liegt, liegt man nicht weit vom Optimum weg. Die Entscheidung kann also mit einer beruhigenden Ungenauigkeit getroffen werden.
(3) Mehr Auslastung von Entwicklern führt bei Änderungen und Taskwechsel zu relativ mehr Overhead. Die effiziente Ausnutzung von Entwicklern liegt eher in der Größenordnung von (z.B.) 65-75% als bei 90-100%. Das genaue Optimum muss im eigenen Unternehmen gefunden werden.
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There were some helpful, concrete insights, but more important, this book will help you develop a mental framework for analyzing product development process. This understanding will set you free from the Agile vs. Waterfall cargo-cultism that permeates the tech industry.
This is a dense book. The target audience of marketing MBA's, industrial engineers, project and general managers will be challenged. It requires some familiarity with lean manufacturing, economics and operations research. The principles are illustrated but not obvious. The quality, lean manufacturing, Toyota Production System, theory of constraints and technical sources are briefly referenced. The rationale for existing (stage-gate) best practices is not explained. Limits and trade-offs are not discussed.
Nonetheless, this is an audacious and path breaking book. Product development practitioners can learn and apply the principles of this book.
Economics trumps simple versions of quality paradigms. Expected net lifetime value is king. Marginal cost/benefit analysis rules. Global optimums outweigh local ones. Proxy measures undermine optimal economic decision-making. Decisions matter, precision does not. Priority features/competitive advantages matter most. Economic rules of thumb allow decentralized decisions. Cost of delay is managed through an explicit value of time.
Queuing theory manages delays. Project and task cycle times drive the cost of delay. Long queues increase defects, variability and risks. Misplaced high efficiency and utilization goals lead to delays, increased costs and disastrous momentum. Communications links between adjacent processes matter more than bottleneck capacity. Simple views that delays, variability, inventory or waste are evil or have infinite cost lead to bad decisions. Queues are everywhere in product development.
Measure variability with a payoff function. It can be negative or positive. Testing generates information value. Statistics based steps reduce variation, such as smaller tasks and time horizons. Counterbalance and design reuse offset variability. Economic priorities, faster iterations and early high risk actions minimize the impact of variability.
Smaller task batch sizes reduce variability and cycle time, accelerate feedback, improve engagement and reduce risk and overhead. Large batches increase costs, delay progress and may spin out of control. Optimum batch sizes are small and can be found through trial and error. Combine features in separately developed and tested modules. Smaller batches are more beneficial than capacity increases. Large batches impact every step of product development.
Detailed planning and control of tasks is costly. It is more effective to control the work in process between major functions. As with TPS or Theory of Constraints, managing the flow of released product from stage to stage improves final results. Many scheduling, prioritization, resource and recovery strategies can minimize task WIP. A blended generalist/specialist staff skills profile offers flexible capacity.
The flow of activities through product development can be managed. Use forecasts and share information between adjacent stages. Use cadence to set routine start/stop times. Synchronize tasks so that dependent events flow smoothly. Sequence tasks and change priorities based upon risk and incremental economic value added. Build in flexible paths and spare resources.
Develop rapid feedback systems. Employ early warning systems and value at risk triggers to escalate reviews. Align activities through training, incentives and templates. Adjust decisively when required. Use frequent communication to build teams and short queues to build urgency. Employ flow metrics.
Decentralize decision making to speed the flow and avoid management bottlenecks. Provide high level structure in the form of rough-cut plans, rules of thumb, intentions, templates and sequences.
The principles in this book can be applied to any operations or development process. The value added is limited only by the time invested.
I recommend reading the book in small batches so that you can absorb and retain the material.
This book is highly influential and highly recommended.