- Gebundene Ausgabe: 272 Seiten
- Verlag: Crown Business (9. August 2011)
- Sprache: Englisch
- ISBN-10: 0385525761
- ISBN-13: 978-0385525763
- Größe und/oder Gewicht: 14,5 x 2,7 x 21,6 cm
- Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: Schreiben Sie die erste Bewertung
- Amazon Bestseller-Rang: Nr. 380.424 in Fremdsprachige Bücher (Siehe Top 100 in Fremdsprachige Bücher)
The Penguin and the Leviathan: How Cooperation Triumphs over Self-Interest (Englisch) Gebundenes Buch – 9. August 2011
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"For the last several centuries, many of our deeply held beliefs have been shaped by the view that human beings are fundamentally motivated by self-interest. In his latest work, Benkler (The Wealth of Networks) challenges this long-held view, asserting that the spirit of human cooperation is stronger than selfishness a view that will likely revolutionize business, economics, technology, government, and human interaction in the future... His pertinent examples bring his ideas to life."
"Yochai Benkler is the smartest thinker we have on the effects of the internet on society. In The Penguin and the Leviathan, he lays out the ways that larger, looser, freer collaborations are transforming how we think about work and about the value we give and get from each other."
—Clay Shirky, bestselling author of Here Come Everybody and Cognitive Surplus
"Benkler speaks the truth on every page -- presenting a brighter vision of human nature that we keep insist on denying for no good reason."
—Tim Wu, bestselling author of The Master Switch and professor, Columbia Law School
"...a solid swipe at blind adherence to "free market" dogma. Comprehensive and provocative."
Über den Autor und weitere Mitwirkende
Yochai Benkler is the Berkman Professor of Entrepreneurial Legal Studies at Harvard University. Since the 1990s, he has been a leading scholar in the role of collaboration in information technology, business, society, and culture, and his work has been featured in The Economist, Wall Street Journal, New York Times, and Time Magazine. His previous book, The Wealth of Networks, was named best business book about the future by Strategy + Business Magazine.
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With practical everyday examples demonstrating thoroughly researched studies, Benkler dismantles the primary underpinnings of much of the constructs of "organized" living. Not because they're entirely wrong, but more accurately because they are dreadfully simplistic and incomplete. In doing so he creates the necessary space in which the missing ingredient (and all its complexities) can exist and more effectively explain what makes us tick.
That ingredient is that humans are social beings and as social beings we operate on more than pure self interest or unfettered lawlessness. The prevailing theories on which much of Western societies are built leave out the social natures of being humans. The lab experiments on which these theories are based failed to create realistic human experiences, in addition to failing to account for humans in social contexts.
Benkler explores how these social aspects of human nature can be harnessed--predictably even--to create more effective outcomes when the conditions are created where we freely work together (and what that really looks and feels like, not just lip service) despite decades of assumptions that we otherwise would make a hash of it if allowed to do so.
I'd love to start reading his follow on work in this area now that more than 6 years have passed since publication. When first published, Uber and AirBnB didn't exist. I wonder what he thinks of them (and similar)!
The book starts badly, contrasting selfish "homo-economicus" models with cooperation. However, these just aren't two sides of a coin - much cooperative behavior occurs for selfish reasons. The author doesn't seem to understand this point properly. He implies that economists models betrayed a lack of understanding of human nature. "Homo-economicus" is a simplified model. Economists always realized this - I think it is only their critics that didn't.
The second chapter is about evolutionary biology. Considering that the author is a law professor, the treatment is quite good. However, that is not saying very much. The author goes through some examples of kin-selected behaviour, describing them in terms of group selection and giving David Sloane Wilson credit for our understanding of them. This seems silly to me. Kin selection was the work of Hamilton and Price in the 1960s. David Sloane Wilson's contribution has largely consisted of an attempt to rechristen this work. To say that group selection is "essential to explaining many of the cooperative behaviours we observe" ignores the fact that these behaviours have been explained equally well by kin selection, using the exact same mathematics - in many cases.
The rest of the book was of better quality. The author does defend against the accusation of being too "hippy-dippy" in the text. However, my conclusion was that an over-rosy view of human nature contributed to his positive conclusions. Building cooperative groups - including online groups - is an important task. This book offers some valuable advice about doing that. However, to make cooperation work, a better understanding of human nature would help, by better allowing people to avoid the pitfalls. That's where this book is weak.
The two best examples the author uses are the Open Source Software community and Toyota. The Open Source Software community demonstrates cooperation in a new technology. The Toyota example demonstrates cooperation within a very old industry, the auto industry, and within a well established large corporation. Corporations are not traditionally set up with the cooperative model. Corporations are traditionally set up with a hierarchical model. The author demonstrates how Toyota has used the cooperative model with their workers, customers, and suppliers to create a system that works for all the participants and to have become the largest auto company in the world.