- Gebundene Ausgabe: 354 Seiten
- Verlag: Cambridge University Press (18. April 2013)
- Sprache: Englisch
- ISBN-10: 1107033292
- ISBN-13: 978-1107033290
- Größe und/oder Gewicht: 17,4 x 2,1 x 24,7 cm
- Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: Schreiben Sie die erste Bewertung
- Amazon Bestseller-Rang: Nr. 1.449.674 in Fremdsprachige Bücher (Siehe Top 100 in Fremdsprachige Bücher)
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New Music at Darmstadt: Nono, Stockhausen, Cage, and Boulez (Music since 1900) (Englisch) Gebundene Ausgabe – 18. April 2013
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Über das Produkt
The Darmstadt New Music Courses were the most significant institutional bastion of new music in post-war Europe. Yet until now there has been no full-length coverage of them in English. This volume shows the rise and fall of the 'Darmstadt School', through a wealth of primary sources and analytical commentary.
Über den Autor und weitere Mitwirkende
Martin Iddon is Associate Professor of Music at the University of Leeds. He previously lectured at University College Cork and Lancaster University, and studied composition and musicology at the Universities of Durham and Cambridge. His musicological research largely focuses on post-war music in Germany and the United States of America, and has been published in numerous leading journals, including Musical Quarterly, Twentieth-Century Music and the Contemporary Music Review. His music has been performed in Europe, North America and Australasia, and has been featured on BBC Radio 3, Radio New Zealand and the Österreichischer Rundfunk.
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If you can get through the dense prose, you'll come away with a much better understanding of the so-called "Darmstadt School" and the history behind it. By the way, the lovely young lady on the cover is Schönberg's daughter Nuria, who married Luigi Nono.
The "Golden Age" of the Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik began somewhat after World War II and ended with the sudden death, in 1961, of its Founder, Wolfgang Steinecke. The book covers the exciting discoveries of the severest serial composers of the day, replete with bitter polemics and musical politics. Intellectuals like Theodor W. Adorno and Heinz-Klaus Metzger formed an important part of the scene. For this reviewer, this "School" was the true heir to the Second Viennese School, the great trio of Arnold Schoenberg, Anton von Webern, and Alban Berg.
Listening to recordings of the various composers associated with that era at Darmstadt (also including Bruno Maderna, Luciano Berio, Iannis Xenakis, Olivier Messiaen, Milton Babbitt, Hans Werner Henze, Bernd Alois Zimmermann, and Humphrey Searle), one is astonished by the thrilling, uncompromising, and theatrical works produced. Difficult they are, to be certain, for both performers and audiences, but intensely dramatic, sometimes even transcendent.
Iddon brings us through what was the degradation of the "Darmstadt School," with the pernicious influence of John Cage, who (according to Carl Dahlhaus) "swept across the European avant-garde like a natural disaster," with his puerile ideas of chance operations and his gradual artistic eccentricity. M.Boulez diagnosed the problem in 1957: "The most basic embodiment of chance is to be found in the adoption of a quasi-oriental philosophy in order to conceal a fundamental weakness in compositional technique: a cure for creative suffocation...." Nono noted that improvisation is self-centered, it "serves as the adjuration of a god, such that today it is one's own ego which is conjured up."
The "abstract negation" (Adorno's words) of what Cage and his followers were doing cut into the trajectory of musical development, leaving us with the trivia and sterility (often fatally influenced by commercial music) we too often hear that passes for contemporary music in our concert halls and opera houses.
The popular image of Darmstadt -- a misconception even I, a longtime fan of mid-century modernism, had -- was that it was a perennial haunt of total serialists and dominated by Stockhausen and Boulez from nearly the very start. In fact, Darmstadt began with a great deal of Hindemith on the program, and even in the mid-1950s avant-garde premieres were just a slice of a larger program of older works. The first famous modernists to commit themselves to the Ferienkurse and make a splash were Bruno Maderna and Luigi Nono, with Karel Goeyvaerts being the first to raise a scandal through a total serialist piece. While Stockhausen and Boulez did serve as a lightning rod for critics of serialism, their Fifties heyday lasted only a few years, from roughly 1955 to 1958, and while Boulez was a respected figure in European music and well-known to Darmstadt's organizers and many participants, he was absent for a number of years in the 1950s.
The main thrust of Iddon's book is how each composer took serialism or chance procedures in their own personal direction. For example, even within chance procedures, there was an enormous difference between John Cage's attempt to eliminate the ego by generating a piece by flipping a coin, and Stockhausen and Boulez's work that simply allowed the performer to choose the order that sections of more conventional music were played in. Often, while pursuing their own style, composers would disparage the way other composers did things, such as Stockhausen's infamous complaint about Nono's "Il canto sospeso", or Nono's own 1959 anti-Cage lecture "Music and history". Critics' attacks on composers or composers' attacks on their peers were often based on misunderstandings of how the music was actually written or performed, and it often seems that certain composers were simply used as pawns in one critic's sniping at another critic, facts be damned. There was a widespread misunderstanding, for example, that pianist David Tudor was improvising when performing Cage, but in fact the elements of chance had been decided already by the composer, and Tudor had to prepare his performance carefully from the score.
The section of the book on total serialism does look at a few pieces in depth, with extracts from the score and an expectation that the reader has a firm grounding in theory. However, the era of the "Cage shock" lacks that: while Iddon repeatedly mentions the fad of graphic scores, there are sadly none reproduced in the book. It is also worth mentioning that Iddon's coverage of stylistic trends ends with the "Cage shock", and while I understand that, say, the "sound mass" music of Ligeti is outside the scope of the book, I would have appreciated some mention in the afterword of what followed after Iddon's two 1950s trends.