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Natural-Born Cyborgs: Minds, Technologies, and the Future of Human Intelligence von [Clark, Andy]
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Natural-Born Cyborgs: Minds, Technologies, and the Future of Human Intelligence Kindle Edition

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Produktbeschreibungen

Pressestimmen

"Andy Clark has given us an exciting yet realistic vision of what lies ahead. If you've ever wondered what Cyborgs are really all about, this is where you will find your answers." --Kevin Warwick, Professor of Cybernetics, University of Reading, and author of I, Cyborg
"Highly interesting, provocative and easy to read.... Natural-Born Cyborgs is impressive and entertaining."--Nature
"Clark does an excellent job of explaining the increasing symbiosis between humans and the machines they create."--Dallas Morning News
"Lively and provocative."--San Diego Union-Tribune



"Andy Clark has given us an exciting yet realistic vision of what lies ahead. If you've ever wondered what Cyborgs are really all about, this is where you will find your answers." --Kevin Warwick, Professor of Cybernetics, University of Reading, and author of I, Cyborg
"Highly interesting, provocative and easy to read.... Natural-Born Cyborgs is impressive and entertaining."--Nature
"Clark does an excellent job of explaining the increasing symbiosis between humans and the machines they create."--Dallas Morning News
"Lively and provocative."--San Diego Union-Tribune



"Andy Clark has given us an exciting yet realistic vision of what lies ahead. If you've ever wondered what Cyborgs are really all about, this is where you will find your answers." --Kevin Warwick, Professor of Cybernetics, University of Reading, and author of I, Cyborg
"Highly interesting, provocative and easy to read.... Natural-Born Cyborgs is impressive and entertaining."--Nature
"Clark does an excellent job of explaining the increasing symbiosis between humans and the machines they create."--Dallas Morning News
"Lively and provocative."--San Diego Union-Tribune


"Natural Born Cyborgs is an engaging, fun read that leaves readers at a level where they can go beyond the "gee-whiz" level of analysis." -- P.B. Broderick, Minds and Machines
"Andy Clark has given us an exciting yet realistic vision of what lies ahead. If you've ever wondered what Cyborgs are really all about, this is where you will find your answers." --Kevin Warwick, Professor of Cybernetics, University of Reading, and author of I, Cyborg
"Highly interesting, provocative and easy to read.... Natural-Born Cyborgs is impressive and entertaining."--Nature
"Clark does an excellent job of explaining the increasing symbiosis between humans and the machines they create."--Dallas Morning News
"Lively and provocative."--San Diego Union-Tribune


"Natural Born Cyborgs is an engaging, fun read that leaves readers at a level where they can go beyond the "gee-whiz" level of analysis." -- P.B. Broderick, Minds and Machines
"Andy Clark has given us an exciting yet realistic vision of what lies ahead. If you've ever wondered what Cyborgs are really all about, this is where you will find your answers." --Kevin Warwick, Professor of Cybernetics, University of Reading, and author of I, Cyborg
"Highly interesting, provocative and easy to read.... Natural-Born Cyborgs is impressive and entertaining."--Nature
"Clark does an excellent job of explaining the increasing symbiosis between humans and the machines they create."--Dallas Morning News
"Lively and provocative."--San Diego Union-Tribune



"Natural Born Cyborgs is an engaging, fun read that leaves readers at a level where they can go beyond the "gee-whiz" level of analysis." -- P.B. Broderick, Minds and Machines


"Andy Clark has given us an exciting yet realistic vision of what lies ahead. If you've ever wondered what Cyborgs are really all about, this is where you will find your answers." --Kevin Warwick, Professor of Cybernetics, University of Reading, and author of I, Cyborg


"Highly interesting, provocative and easy to read.... Natural-Born Cyborgs is impressive and entertaining."--Nature


"Clark does an excellent job of explaining the increasing symbiosis between humans and the machines they create."--Dallas Morning News


"Lively and provocative."--San Diego Union-Tribune


Kurzbeschreibung

From Robocop to the Terminator to Eve 8, no image better captures our deepest fears about technology than the cyborg, the person who is both flesh and metal, brain and electronics. But philosopher and cognitive scientist Andy Clark sees it differently. Cyborgs, he writes, are not something to be feared--we already are cyborgs.
In Natural-Born Cyborgs, Clark argues that what makes humans so different from other species is our capacity to fully incorporate tools and supporting cultural practices into our existence. Technology as simple as writing on a sketchpad, as familiar as Google or a cellular phone, and as potentially revolutionary as mind-extending neural implants--all exploit our brains' astonishingly plastic nature. Our minds are primed to seek out and incorporate non-biological resources, so that we actually think and feel through our best technologies. Drawing on his expertise in cognitive science, Clark demonstrates that our sense of self and of physical presence can be expanded to a remarkable extent, placing the long-existing telephone and the emerging technology of telepresence on the same continuum. He explores ways in which we have adapted our lives to make use of technology (the measurement of time, for example, has wrought enormous changes in human existence), as well as ways in which increasingly fluid technologies can adapt to individual users during normal use. Bio-technological unions, Clark argues, are evolving with a speed never seen before in history. As we enter an age of wearable computers, sensory augmentation, wireless devices, intelligent environments, thought-controlled prosthetics, and rapid-fire information search and retrieval, the line between the user and her tools grows thinner day by day. "This double whammy of plastic brains and increasingly responsive and well-fitted tools creates an unprecedented opportunity for ever-closer kinds of human-machine merger," he writes, arguing that such a merger is entirely natural.
A stunning new look at the human brain and the human self, Natural Born Cyborgs reveals how our technology is indeed inseparable from who we are and how we think.

Produktinformation

  • Format: Kindle Edition
  • Dateigröße: 3384 KB
  • Seitenzahl der Print-Ausgabe: 240 Seiten
  • Verlag: Oxford University Press (1. April 2003)
  • Verkauf durch: Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
  • Sprache: Englisch
  • ASIN: B000R3PJ74
  • Text-to-Speech (Vorlesemodus): Aktiviert
  • X-Ray:
  • Word Wise: Aktiviert
  • Verbesserter Schriftsatz: Nicht aktiviert
  • Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: 5.0 von 5 Sternen 1 Kundenrezension
  • Amazon Bestseller-Rang: #468.818 Bezahlt in Kindle-Shop (Siehe Top 100 Bezahlt in Kindle-Shop)
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Format: Taschenbuch Verifizierter Kauf
Andy Clark hat mit diesem Buch versucht klar zu machen, dass wir schon viel mehr "Cyborgs" sind, als wir glauben (möchten). Am Beispiel der Armbanduhr macht er deutlich, wie sehr diese Erfindung unser Leben aber auch unser Verständnis von Zeit und Leistung verändert hat.
Er macht aber auch deutlich, dass Technik, die alltäglicher Teil unseres Lebens wird, irgendwann auch undurchsichtig für uns wird (siehe Computer) und damit unbeherrschbar.
Analogien zur Tatsache, dass auswendig gelerntes Wissen heute von kleinen handlichen Palms mit riesigen Datenbanken überkommen wurde verdeutlichen die Verwischung. Allein die Anpassung dieser Hilfsmittel an das menschliche Wesen und die Integration in unser Leben nimmt Zeit in Anspruch.
Das Buch nimmt einem nicht die Angst vor einer "schrecklich technisierten neuen Welt" - es hat bei mir viel mehr das Bewußtsein geweckt, dass ich auf dem besten Weg bin ein von der Technik überholter, blöd dastehender Greis zu werden, der einfach nicht mithalten kann, weil er seinen neuen Super-Mini-Elite-Handy-Foto-Rechner nicht mehr bedienen kann.
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Amazon.com: 3.2 von 5 Sternen 13 Rezensionen
2 von 2 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
4.0 von 5 Sternen Mind-bendingly Enjoyable 29. September 2013
Von Anish Joseph - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Taschenbuch Verifizierter Kauf
In his book Natural Born Cyborgs, Andy Clark supports a view of human-machine symbiosis that puts our recent integration with computer interfaces on a continuum of human evolutionary development along with "clothes, cooking, bricklaying, and writing." Through his writing the author makes the case to support this view in which he systematically lays out a foundation for readers to see things from his perspective. Overall the book is written very well. I would recommend it to anyone with an open mind, some background in technology/neuroscience and a general interest in thinking about how we, in effect, have developed as human beings throughout the course of history.

After first introducing the book by playing off of our fear of the fictional cyborgs we all know from the movies ie Terminator, Eve 8, Cable - the book begins with a brief introduction of the author's background; Andy Clark claims that it was during his time directing a new interdisciplinary program in philosophy, neuroscience, and psychology that he first realized this concept of "cyborg" that he details in this book. From here he introduces the idea of humans being intrinsically technology dependent beings. He states that his goal in writing such a book is "to hijack that image (our preconceived notion of cyborg) and to reshape it, revealing it as a disguised vision of our own biological nature." What really impressed me about his style of argument and writing was his use of examples from research in many different fields to illustrate his point. Where many times we see arguments like his fall into ambiguity and opinion, his use of concrete examples helps paint the picture of the story he tells.

The book itself is very short, consisting of only 8 chapters, however every chapter has been thoroughly annotated so readers can dive deeper if they wish. For the sake of my synopsis I've divided the book into two halves.

Chapters 1-3
The first chapter of the book is spent educating the reader on where the term cyborg originally came from putting it in the context of the first early technologies which "sought to incorporate exogenous components extending the self-regulating control function of the organism in order to adapt it to new environments" Here Clark cites early osmotic pumps, auditory prosthetics, and peripheral nerve interfaces. The focus of this chapter is to draw out what Clark calls "an ancient western prejudice" which creates the illusionary belief that the mind is distinctly different from the rest of natural order. Instead of viewing technology as something distinct from our human nature he argues that technology is integrated and always has been integrated with our nature placing us in our current condition at a transition point between first wave (pen,paper,diagram, and digital media) and second wave (personalized, online, dynamic biotechnological unions) technologies. The cell phone is the technology he uses as an example of this transition.

Moving from the concrete into more abstract realms Andy Clark then introduces the idea of transparent and opaque technologies before diving into his categorization of technologies, which he labels "ready-to-hand" and "present-at-hand." In categorizing the way people perceive and interact with technologies Clark attempts to bring some level of awareness to how we as lay people may simply generalize and interact with technologies and our environment taking what we have right in front of us for granted. The importance of understanding concepts such as these are again driven home using experimental example - in this case the ability of chimps who are trained to reason symbolically vs chimps who are not. Andy uses this example to make his point that only the chimps who were trained to reason symbolically were then able to understand higher order relationships - what he calls the relation between relations.

Chapters 4-8
Once laying out this abstract scaffold for his argument Andy Clark gets into his answers to bigger questions: Where are we? and What are we?. Here he takes the reader through reported experiments and experiences, which alter human perception through illusions and the use of technology based telepresence to play with the idea of embodied consciousness. From here he explores the application and ethics of such technologies for the future of mankind. Andy Clark takes a look at how this knowledge is already currently being used through computational application dipping into the darker areas of misuse of such information/technology. He ends this section making the point that it is not technology itself that is evil; it's how the technology is used. In conclusion Andy Clark argues that it's not the preconceived invasive and material tools themselves that make us cyborgs rather it's the extended thinking systems that are created as a result of these tools that make us who we are.

I thoroughly enjoyed reading this book and I especially liked the importance he gives to interdisciplinary perspectives. Through the experience of working on constructing an interdisciplinary research program at Georgia Tech under Dr. Steve Potter I came to notice and support many of the ideas presented here. What impressed me most about the book was the amazing job the author does in translating ideas to the reader through examples while at the same time demonstrating the concept in the structure of his writing. For example in introducing the idea of the symbolically reasoning chimps he is setting up the scaffold to introduce his concept of scaffolded thinking.

The biggest problem I can see readers having with this book is what can appear as Andy Clark's loose use of what he defines as a technology. Because he is speaking of technology in both a physical and metaphysical sense I can see many readers having a hard time accepting the case that he makes if they do not consider what he has to say carefully. If the reader does buy into Clark's definition, this book is an amazing source of perspective on how we as human beings have grown in an interlocked web of biology and technology. In my opinion what Andy Clark talks about in this book has incredible application in models of education and perspective regardless of opinion on the monistic, dualist, or pluralist nature of the world.
2 von 2 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen Cyborgs in the Flesh 2. Juli 2006
Von Kjell Oevergaard - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Taschenbuch Verifizierter Kauf
Clark presents an argument that we do not need to implant microchips or electronic prostheses in our body to become Cyborgs, - We are already Cyborgs. The argument is based in our natural ability to use tools and technics to enhance our capabilities for movement, cognition and perception.

The book is easy to read and draws upon research from the fields of robotics, cognitive science, neuroscience, cybernetics, dynamic systems theory, feminist theory, cognitive anthropology and english litterature studies.

The fact that he draws upon such diverse fields of research does not reduce the logic or persuasiveness of his arguments, but rather show the interdisciplinary basis for the book. The breadth of the arguments' basis is a major plus with this book, showing that the interplay between humans and technology are not merely technical but also something which changes who we are and how we understand our selves.
0 von 1 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
4.0 von 5 Sternen New Point of View 19. April 2010
Von K. Rasche - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Taschenbuch Verifizierter Kauf
Clark is new and inventive in his theories on the natural born cyborg. Since we all use technology so smoothly and since it is integrated into our lives to such an extent, we are all cyborgs in one fashion or another. This book is excellent and will have you questioning who you really are. Clark provides creative and easy to understand illustrations to help the reader further understand his points.
19 von 20 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen Superb Analysis of the Human/Machine Symbiosis 7. November 2004
Von Roger D. Launius - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Gebundene Ausgabe
What is the future of humanity? Is the next phase of human evolution the merging of humans and machines? Or perhaps, are we humans already merged with machines and have we been for centuries? These and other questions are ones that occupy Andy Clark, director of the Cognitive Science Program at Indiana University and author of this thought-provoking book written for an informed but lay audience. Clark makes the case that long before cyborgs became the villains of so many popular films--the "Terminator" and "Matrix" series, "Blade Runner," and "2001: A Space Odyssey" come immediately to mind--humans had become inextricably linked to machines in a way that ensured that they could not survive without them. Accordingly, even without electronic implants Homo Sapiens are cyborgs, and have been as far back as the first time one of our ancestors picked up a tree limb and used it as club. Clark argues that the human-technology symbiosis is totally natural and has been for millennia. The speed with which the merging of human and machine is advancing expanded greatly in the twentieth century as such technologies as pacemakers, artificial hips and knees, prosthetics, and other electronic implants have enhanced and sometimes prolonged the lives of millions of people.

Andy Clark explores this increasingly close relationship of humans and machines--the "cyborg-ization" of humanity--in eight chapters. Beginning with the argument that we are already cyborgs dependent for our lifestyle on all manner of technologies, he moves through a succession of possible steps into the future that will find us more and more closely tied to the technologies we have created. Eventually, we will reach a post-human state. Rather than invoking fear that we will become non-human, Clark celebrates this possibility and the wondrous potentialities it offers. He urges caution in this transition, for not all possibilities are desirable, but generally Clark is optimistic. He asks: "if it is our basic human nature to annex, exploit, and incorporate nonbiological stuff deep into our mental profiles [and he firmly believes that it is]--then the question is not whether we go that route, but in what ways we actively sculpt and shape it. By seeing ourselves as we truly are, we increase the chances that our future biotechnological unions will be good ones" (p. 198).

In my own research concerning the past, present, and possible future of spaceflight, I find much in Andy Clark's study that is useful. One of the truly fascinating developments associated with the rise of robotic capabilities is the possibility of post-human migration. In fulfilling the spacefaring dream, the intelligent life to leave Earth and colonize the galaxy may not be entirely human in form. Extensive discussions have taken place in recent years on the relationship between artificial computer intelligence, biotechnology, and human evolution. In spite of its obvious relevance to space travel, little of this has been extended to outer space. The early space pioneer Robert H. Goddard suspected that humans might be obliged to transport genetic material to distant stars rather than go themselves. The rigors of galactic flight that will likely confine humans to the inner solar system might not confine our machines. Given the great difficulties of interstellar flight, these would have to be machines with human-like intelligence or even possibly humans reengineered to withstand long-duration space travel. The possibilities are truly amazing and somewhat weird, and as remote today from common experience as were the early images of space travel to the people who first envisioned them centuries ago. Nonetheless, they are not wholly impossible. Given current directions in technology as envisioned by such authors as Andy Clark, a post-biological galaxy teeming with enhanced human intelligence is not beyond the realm of possibility. In one such vision, biological species become so technologically proficient that they cease to exist in purely biological form. The possibilities for post-human evolution has the potential to radically alter the dominant paradigm of human spaceflight.

"Natural-Born Cyborgs" is a challenging and useful book. Highly recommended.
1.0 von 5 Sternen Antiquated, boring, hyper intellectual and over plotted. 26. April 2016
Von VirgilCane - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Kindle Edition
Yes I really am a doctor, however truth be told I got my Doctorate in Divinity online for 19.99 USD. But I still consider myself average intelligence even after I melted my mind in the 80's dancing with Jerry Garcia. I agree with the concept set forth in this book that we are cyborgs already with reliance on everything from pacemakers to Google. However Andy Clark was way too intellectual even for this old Doctor and like many professors, journalists and lawyers he tended to over plot as it were. We get it, you know a lot of stuff. Besides this book is so antiquated that the ubiquitous iPhone did not yet exist and thus Andy Clark could not even envision the day when everyone walking, driving or waiting on the bus would be completely mesmerized while frantically one-thumb flipping through the feed of an Orwellian nocturnal emission also known as Facebook.
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