- Taschenbuch: 240 Seiten
- Verlag: Dover Pubn Inc; Auflage: Revised. (10. Juli 1997)
- Sprache: Englisch
- ISBN-10: 0486298957
- ISBN-13: 978-0486298955
- Größe und/oder Gewicht: 13,8 x 1,1 x 21,4 cm
- Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: 2 Kundenrezensionen
- Amazon Bestseller-Rang: Nr. 76.818 in Fremdsprachige Bücher (Siehe Top 100 in Fremdsprachige Bücher)
How We Think (Englisch) Taschenbuch – 10. Juli 1997
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Dewey's 1910 essay on teaching reasoning. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
Über den Autor und weitere Mitwirkende
John Dewey(1859 1952) was anAmerican philosopher, psychologistandeducational reformerwhose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey was an important early developer of the philosophy ofpragmatismand one of the founders offunctional psychology. He was a major representative ofprogressive educationandliberalism.In 1894 Dewey joined the newly foundedUniversity of Chicago(1894 1904) where he developed his belief in an empirically based theory of knowledge, becoming associated with the newly emerging Pragmatic philosophy. His time at the University of Chicago resulted in four essays collectively entitledThought and its Subject-Matter, which was published with collected works from his colleagues at Chicago under the collective titleStudies in Logical Theory(1903). During that time Dewey also initiated theUniversity of Chicago Laboratory Schools, where he was able to actualize the pedagogical beliefs that provided material for his first major work on education, The School and Social Progress(1899).In 1899, Dewey was elected president of theAmerican Psychological Association. From 1904 until his retirement in 1930 he was professor of philosophy at both Columbia Universityand Columbia University'sTeachers College.In 1905 he became president of theAmerican Philosophical Association. He was a longtime member of theAmerican Federation of Teachers. -- Dieser Text bezieht sich auf eine andere Ausgabe: Taschenbuch.
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What have I gained from this book? Everytime I do something, I attempt to break it down into its simples being, and determining how this breakdown fosters greater intelligence within myself.
As a text book or a book one wants to learn something from, I give it five stars. For just general reading it will garner 1/2 of a star.
Reading this book, I was surprised to see the applicability of its contents to my main activity field, which is business management. Today's main effort in business research is toward innovation and learning. Thus, thinking skill is probably the most important resource of any organization.
Dewey's view of thinking is surprisingly consistent and as fresh as any of the new management theories. Just to mention one aspect, he warns about the confusion of mental analysis (looking for the general aspects of an object) with physical analysis (dissection into parts), which leads to study living objects as if they were dead. This is the essence of systems thinking, which is so fashionable today!
The ideas Dewey presents about education are very useful for today's business environment. Business leaders, consultants and scholars should look carefully at his advices! His study of work and play is a great lesson of wisdom.
I would strongly recommend this book to anyone seriosly aiming at world class business performance.
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Dewey analyzes the various forms of thought, from sloppy, unreflective daydreaming to philosophically minded, critical thinking. He argues that the natural resources of the student should be taken account of, and school conditions must be adjusted to them. What school conditions should foster is the “scientific attitude of mind,” which is near to the “native and unspoiled attitude of childhood, marked by ardent curiosity, fertile imagination, and love of experimental inquiry.”
Critical, scientific thought, Dewey writes, involves a symbiotic relationship between observation and reasoning. The inductive and deductive processes are intertwined and rooted in experience. The nature of scientific meaning or conceptions is analyzed. Neither concrete nor abstract thought is superior: each serves the ends of the other - practical ends are blind without theory, and theorizing is empty without practical ends to serve. Scientific thinking attempts to rise above empirical thought by controlling our observations and seeking to master our environment, allowing the future to come under our grasp. Empirical thought is confined to what is; scientific thought attempts to extend beyond the bounds of sense and ask ‘what if?’ “The prime necessity for scientific thought,” writes Dewey, “is that the thinker be freed from the tyranny of sense stimuli and habit, and this emancipation is also the necessary condition of progress.”
Dewey views on logic and scientific induction are insightful. Being logical, in a special sense as viewed through Dewey’s pragmatism, denotes “the systematic care, negative and positive, taken to safeguard reflection so that it may yield the best results under the given conditions.” Use determines meaning here, as in the Pragmatist epistemology. The inductive and deductive processes exhibit a unity of contrasting processes. ”The inductive movement,” Dewey writes, “is toward of a binding principle; the deductive toward its testing - confirming, refuting, modifying it on the basis of its capacity to interpret isolated details into a unified experience. So far as we conduct each of these processes in the light of the other, we get valid discovery or verified critical thinking.”
Throughout this work Dewey perceives a unity of (what are perceived to be) opposites. Instead of occupying different realms, activities like theoretic and practical thinking, art and science, logic and psychology, and others each provide fuel for or grow out of the other. “The psychological and the logical,” Dewey writes, “instead of being opposed to each other (or even independent of each other), are connected as the earlier and the later stages in one continuous process of normal growth.”
The student's activities should be geared around fostering the scientific spirit. The information given to the student should be connected with the student's own observations and experience. Thought should be trained to base general principles on observation and use; the function and use of general principles determines their form. “Application,” Dewey writes, “is as much an intrinsic part of genuine reflective inquiry as is alert observation or reasoning itself. Truly general principles tend to apply themselves.” Work and play should fuel each other, forming a symbiotic relationship.
This is another great classic available for free on the web for e-readers (this review pertains to the free Kindle ebook version). Students of philosophy, psychology and educators have much to profit from this work.
I am returning this to Amazon and looking for a legitimate copy of How We Think.
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