- Gebundene Ausgabe: 432 Seiten
- Verlag: Simon & Schuster (5. November 2013)
- Sprache: Englisch
- ISBN-10: 1451654669
- ISBN-13: 978-1451654660
- Größe und/oder Gewicht: 15,2 x 3,8 x 22,9 cm
- Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: 2 Kundenrezensionen
- Amazon Bestseller-Rang: Nr. 248.890 in Fremdsprachige Bücher (Siehe Top 100 in Fremdsprachige Bücher)
The Heart of Everything That Is: The Untold Story of Red Cloud, An American Legend (Englisch) Gebundene Ausgabe – 5. November 2013
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NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER
A SALON.COM BEST BOOK OF THE YEAR
TRUE WEST MAGAZINE'S BEST BIOGRAPHY OF THE YEAR
“A ripping yarn . . . A quintessentially Western tale of bold exploits, tough characters, brutal conditions and a lost way of life, this sounds like the sort of story that practically tells itself. Yet you only realize how little justice most popular histories do to their source material when you come across a book, like this one, that does everything right. It’s customary to say of certain nonfiction books — gussied up with plenty of 'color' and psychological speculation — that they 'read like a novel,' but truth be told, most of the time we’d have to be talking about a pretty mediocre novel. The Heart of Everything That Is, on the other hand, resembles the good ones. There were times, turning its pages, when I could almost smell the pines of the Black Hills, feel the icy wind tearing down from Canada across the prairie and hear the hooves of the buffalo pounding the earth.” (Laura Miller Salon)
“Exquisitely told . . . Remarkably detailed . . . The story of Red Cloud's unusual guile and strategic genius makes the better-known Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse pale in comparison. . . . This is no knee-jerk history about how the West was won, or how the West was lost. This historical chronicle is unabashed, unbiased and disturbingly honest, leaving no razor-sharp arrowhead unturned, no rifle trigger unpulled. . . . A compelling and fiery narrative.” (USA Today)
“Vivid . . . Lively . . . A tale of lies, trickery, and brutal slaughter . . . In telling the story of Red Cloud, Messrs. Drury and Clavin appropriately bring a number of the larger-than-life figures from that time onstage . . . [and] chronicle in considerable detail the shameful treatment of the Indians across the plains and the destruction of their ancient way of life.” (Christopher Corbett, The Wall Street Journal)
“A page turner . . . Drawing on archives, letters, and a long-lost autobiography written toward the end of Red Cloud’s life, the narrative has a remarkable immediacy . . . [and] the narrative sweep of a great Western.” (Kate Tuttle, The Boston Globe)
“Valuable . . . Meticulous . . . [A] remarkable story . . . The writers don’t shy away from the atrocities on both sides of the gruesome, long-running conflict between the Indians and the U.S. forces. But when, for the umpteenth time, U.S. officials break a contract as soon as the glint of gold is spotted in the hills, one cannot help but feel that there’s all the more reason to celebrate one of the Sioux’s most impressive fighters.” (Smithsonian)
“The authors paint a full and vivid picture of the Oglala Sioux leader . . . The story of Red Cloud is presented here with all the tension and excitement of a good Western novel. . . . The narrative is gripping but not sentimental, and it is well-sourced, drawing, for example, on Red Cloud’s autobiography, lost for nearly a century, and the papers of many others who knew Red Cloud’s War.” (Minneapolis Star Tribune)
“Astounding . . . A tour de force of historical storytelling . . . The Heart of Everything That Is is grand in scope and beautifully observed. . . . Together, [Drury and Clavin] have managed a feat of scholarship that interweaves ethnological brilliance and an insightful reinterpretation of Indian culture from the point of view of the Sioux.” (The Wichita Eagle)
“Riveting . . . Meticulously researched . . . One of the biggest stories in American history . . . The authors uncovered a wealth of material from diaries and letters written by U.S. military officers and their wives and children, and wilderness trackers, plus a treasure trove of historical information gleaned from the letters and journals of the pioneers who crossed the Great Plains during the 1800s.” (Indian Country Today)
“A gripping narrative . . . This fascinating book is highly recommended to anyone interested in the history of the Old West.” (Library Journal, starred review)
"Comprehensive . . . For all of our culture’s fascination with the American Indian, it’s almost impossible to believe that one of the most well-known Indians of his time, the Oglala Sioux warrior chief Red Cloud, could be largely forgotten until now. Yet that’s exactly what we discover in this illuminating account." (Publishers Weekly)
“Histories of the Sioux Wars have too often cast all other warriors into the shadow of Crazy Horse. Drury and Clavin shine welcome light on Red Cloud, a brilliant leader and military strategist whose life was an important part of this brutal and decisive movement in America’s history. This is an absorbing and evocative examination of the endgame in the three-hundred-year war between Native Americans and settlers of European descent.” (Charles Frazier, author of Cold Mountain)
“The word ‘epic’ is overused these days. Not here. This is big, blazing history, writ large on the High Plains. Clavin and Drury handle it beautifully. Through the striking historical figure of Red Cloud, they tell story of the Sioux Nation and of the fight for the American West.” (S. C. Gwynne, author of Empire of the Summer Moon)
“Red Cloud is one of the great figures in nineteenth-century America’s tortured relationships with the many peoples who occupied our country before we took it. Finally, there is a portrait worthy of the man, fully drawn and realized, all the complicated undertow acknowledged and embraced.” (Ken Burns, filmmaker and coauthor of The Civil War)
“Finally we have the full story of Red Cloud, told without the sentimentality and delusional romance that too many white historians bring to the American native tribes. The Powder River country of the West entrapped two equally objectionable groups—the soldiers that Washington sent to decimate the tribes, and the tribes themselves, who had been slaughtering each other for centuries. That stirring but bloodthirsty era deserves an honest treatment like this.” (Rinker Buck author of Flight of Passage)
Über den Autor und weitere Mitwirkende
Bob Drury and Tom Clavin are the New York Times bestselling authors of Halsey's Typhoon and The Last Stand of Fox Company.Alle Produktbeschreibungen
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Starting with the introduction, there are so many historical errors, exaggerations and omissions hidden in casually written subordinate clauses, that even the most willing reader should start to wonder... The strategy of the authors is quite obvious - they portray this historical episode as an unique success story of an outstanding character. Behind this is the straightforward logic that the sheer quality of the topic is congruent with the quality of the book. Intentionally or not, this is no clean historical science, it is a kind of post-revisionist, largely pseudohistorical iconography. Taking a closer look at some of the more obvious distortions or misinterpretations, one can only conclude that the authors committed the worst sin of historical science: they couldn't restist the temptation to use rather apocryphal interpretations just to make their point.
Quite early in the introduction, the authors more or less argue that before the Plains Wars the American public was unused to stiff resistance by Native Americans, besides some exceptions. Actually European settlement needed two centuries and countless conflicts to reach the Mississippi frontier, suffering many serious defeats on its way, some of them with a very profound influence on the culture and politics of the American colonies and later the young United States. The relations of the United States with its indigeneous population were shaped and defined by these events, long before the American public and government were confronted with the harsh realities of Plains warfare. Surely the attitude towards Native Americans underwent many superficial changes (especially after the eastern states lost their frontier status), but the core issues of Manifest Destiny were valid long before and after it was designated as such.
An unneccessary sensationalization is the graphic (and sometimes explicitely sexual)depiction of Native American actrocities, which sounds as if torture was a common feature of Plains warfare. In fact torture was much more common among the Eastern Woodland cultures, who often had a culturally embedded, ritualized captive complex - which most Plains groups didn't have. While Plains warfare was unquestionably brutal, actrocities were and still are a characteristic of most military conflicts, and are rarely restricted to one side. These horrible acts are not typical for Native Americans, they are typical for the nature of human conflict, and even Americans are not immune to these pathological acts, as massacres like Sand Creek, Marias River or Wounded Knee can proof. That US soldiers (although "their steel was forged" in the Civil War) were totally unaware of the more sinister aspects of combat is a questionable generalisation and at best true for recent immigrants from European societies.
It seems as if the authors didn't study Sioux society very thoroughly, but quite selectively to create an image of the textbook savage, impulsive, heroic but also cruel, lurking before the palisades of Army forts which are manned by nervous bluecoats. The one exception to this overused cliché is the eponymous hero, a red Napoleon who has an "unusual foresight for an Indian" and whose spirited resistance engulfed the whole central Plains, well illustrated in a map which shows Red Cloud's "territory" stretching fom the Oregon-Idaho border to Minnesota and from Canada to Nebraska, including regions long lost to Native American control or in fact occupied and well defended by hostile tribal groups. This map, on first glance a harmless artwork, is the visualisation of the authors efforts to lift Red Cloud's war on a supra-regional, even national level. I never read about solid evidence of Sioux war parties operating in Idaho, Manitoba or Eastern Iowa during this conflict.
While the spirited and resourceful fight of Red Cloud and his allies deserves its place in historiography, this overinterpretation doesn't serve its cause well. Maybe it was a stunning success, initiated by a probably (but not necessarily) outstanding leader, but from an objective point of view this military conflict was regionally rather restricted, without lasting consequences and the "multi-tribal" coalition which put up such an effective resistance actually consisted of merely three tribal groups (Teton Sioux, Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho), who had formed a military task-force decades before their conflicts with the US Army. This conclusion doesn't minimize the historical importance of this war, but probably would have been a more appropriate approach on this subject.
Contrary to many other comments, I don't think that this study is overtly racist, and contrary to several commentators (of Native American descent) I don't believe that only Native American "historians" have the rights and knowledge to write this history. Perhaps this study is at times too paternalistic and the terminology irritatingly outdated, but the counter-arguments by some Native American activists (in harmony with nature, matriarchal etc.) are often equally empty rhetoric, just from an opposite position. This topic needs the tools of old-school historical sience with a modern background, a thorough, extensive research, an objective assignment and comparison of the known facts and an eloquent synopsis without any agenda. In this regard, the story still remains untold.
There were several variations of the Sioux tribes and the authors go into detail regarding the time preceding Red Cloud with Old Man Afraid of His Horses as the leader of the Oglala Sioux tribe. We also get a portrait of Jim Bridger, known as Old Gabe, and the authors wonder why more hasn't been written about this influential man in western history. Pretty Owl and Pine Leaf were loves of Red Cloud and the tragic death of Pine Leaf by her own hand is dealt with.
The controversial building of forts along the hated Bozeman Trail through Wyoming and into Montana provides the reader with additional information regarding the building of Fort Phil Kearny which led to the infamous Fetterman Fight on December 21, 1866, in which William Judd Fetterman lost his life along with eighty others. Who was to blame for this fiasco? Was it Fetterman himself or the ill-suited commander of the fort Henry Carrington? Of what role in the defeat, if any, did Tenedore Ten Eyck play? Did his delay in going to Fetterman's defense doom Fetterman and his men or would his support have just added to the victims?
I learned that it was American Horse who killed Fetterman and John "Portugee" Phillips had two others who sent out word of the disaster at Fort Phil Kearny with Phillips being the only one who traveled all the way to Fort Laramie to bring word on the day after Christmas. Also, Jim Bridger thought the location that Henry Carrington chose to build Fort Phil Kearny was a poor choice but Carrington's opinion prevailed. In addition to those already mentioned this book contains several other interesting characters such as Nelson Story who became the inspiration for the novel Lonesome Dove, George and Francis Grummond and Margaret Carrington, Crazy Horse, Spotted Tail, John Bozeman and John Jacobs both of whom started the Bozeman Trail, and many others.
Chief Red Cloud was able to bring victory over the United States army with The Treaty of 1868 which brought about the closing of the Bozeman Trail and the forts (Reno, Phil Kearny, and C. F. Smith) that were located on it. The forts were destroyed and the United States had other more pressing matters on its hands such as the rebuilding of the South following the Civil War and the completion of the Union Pacific railroad.
Chief Red Cloud died at the age of eighty-eight in 1909 and is buried on the grounds of the Red Cloud school that presently educates children on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. Even if you have read the other books on this aspect of Sioux Indian history this biography on Chief Red Cloud is a masterpiece to add to your library.
Reviews from the cover of the book state: "Epic...This is big, blazing history, writ large on the High Plains...a compelling and fiery narrative...This historical chronicle is unabashed, unbiased, and disturbingly honest...vivid...lively...A ripping yarn...you only realize how little justice most popular histories do to their source material when you come across a book, like this one, that does everything right...a page turner...a tour de force of historical story telling...valuable...meticulous...riveting...the authors uncovered a wealth of material from diaries and letters written by US officers and their wives..." This goes on and on for 3 full pages and the back of the book.
Let's start with these popular reviews. This book is meant to be non-fiction. Yes, there is readable non-fiction, and there is unreadable non-fiction, but to try to market/write a book that reads more like a novel is not the point of non-fiction. A non-fiction author should have the goal of relaying information, telling the story, sharing research in an accurate and meaningful way. Ripping yarn is something that would get me to pick up a novel, not a history book. The quote about meticulousness will be addressed later, but I find it funny that reviewers talk about how the authors found such amazing sources like letters and diaries. That is their JOB! They are supposed to find those documents and use them in ways to cast new light on a story. The poor people who are picking this book up and taking it as fact are being misled by these fiction reviews of a non-fiction book.
The authors have given us pretty shoddy history. The majority of their sources are secondary, and many of these are questionable at best. This is not a topic that a person can just decide to write a book about and then go do it. I found the authors to be very careless with their statements. It is quite common in the book for the authors to say "A General, an Indian, a trader, a doctor, etc" without ever identifying who they are referring to. If they have the story of these individuals, then they would have the name. In history, what may seem to the authors as a random name, might be a link to the casual historian who has seen that name in reference to other western events. They also liked to say that lots of Lakota/warriors/Sioux were killed in every minor skirmish or firefight - typical lines talk about how many Indians were knocked out of their saddles every time soldiers/teamsters, civilians fired their weapons. Plains combat, and Native American battle plans could not continued if they were losing warriors at the rate the authors seem to infer to the readers.
I had a hard time figuring out where the majority of the authors information comes from. The bibliography is chockablock with sources, but when I would read something in the book that seemed odd, I would flip back to the end notes and more often than not, the odd statements never had a citation. If you are writing history and making blanket statements, you had better be able to back it up, preferable with a primary source.
In the Acknowledgements section, the authors mention that this manuscript was read by Robert Utley and that they received a great deal of help from the Red Cloud family and the Red Cloud Heritage Center. These folks must have helped make sure that the story was told in the correct order. I can only assume that they helped gather information, but did not have much of a hand in how the info was later presented in the book.
Everything in this book involving Crazy Horse was new to me. Having read most books on Crazy Horse, I found myself continuously flipping to the end notes at every mention of Crazy Horse's name to see what source these wild and often odd statements and stories came from. Alas, none of the Crazy Horse references (I think there was 1) in the book had citations in the notes. In the Notes and Bibliography section, the authors say that they gathered a great deal of information orally from the Crazy Horse family. I can respect that as oral tradition is an important part of any history, but especially Native history. My question is, did some of these things about Crazy Horse come from the interviews or did the authors just make them up? Again - citations please.
Also, stating that the biography of Red Cloud was a new source is not exactly true either. R. Eli Paul's book was published almost 20 years ago in 1997. I think that that is plenty of time for most students of the Plains Wars to have had a chance to dip into that subject matter. Let's look at some other misstatements - just a few from the last few pages of the book as I finished reading this morning:
P. 346 states that American Horse was Fetterman's slayer. No source cited in the notes, but more importantly, nobody could possibly know who killed Fetterman. Not one Indian on the battlefield that day would have known who the soldier was that was leading the troops. Not only that, in all the chaos of thousands of warriors, it is very doubtful that anyone would have known exactly who was doing what. Nobody recognized Custer 10 years later when he was killed, and he was famous on the Plains. Fetterman had only arrived shortly prior to the battle.
P. 350 states that the Nez Perce and Shoshone had been drawn to Red Cloud's banner. Again, no citation and typical of the sweeping statements in the book. The Nez Perce were known not to have fought or killed a white man until 1877. The Shoshone, lifelong enemies of the Lakota, seem like a strange tribal choice to put into this random sentence. The sentence could just as easily have read that the Seminole and Mohawks were drawn to Red Cloud's banner.
There are plenty more of these types of odd statements throughout the book. One cannot just throw things out randomly to make the story more interesting. It does not work that way. So, I was obviously very interested to read the Bibliography section to get some light shed on the interesting end note or lack thereof section. The authors talk about how Fettermen has taken the majority of the blame for this incident, but that authors such as John Monnett and Shannon Smith have written fairer history recently, taking less biased looks at both sides. I flipped to the biblio to see which books the authors used, and this is where I found my favorite thing.
In the Bibliography, 2 sources are listed for J. Monnett - "Where the Hundred Soldiers Were Killed" and "Crazy Horse, a Life." I thought that this was interesting as I was unaware that Monnett had written a book on Crazy Horse, especially in 1999. It seems like I would have come across this in my readings/thesis research 15 years ago. I pulled up amazon, and low and behold, "Crazy Horse, a Life" was written by Larry McMurtry (not the best Crazy Horse book out there). Come on authors - you can't even get your sources right!
I feel bad because so many of the 5 star reviews are so enthusiastic and interested in this topic and the book and they all feel like they learned so much. So, that is why I am giving this book 2 stars instead of 1. I love that people are being introduced to someone as important but fairly unknown as Red Cloud. I love that people are reading and hungry to know more, to possibly visit these sites, to learn about Lakota culture, to learn about military life in the 1840's-1870's. I love that this book has opened the door for so many new historians and casually interested folks. I started reading about this genre through historical fiction, and from there, I got deeper into the primary and secondary sources, both red and white. There is a lot of great stuff out there, but there is also a lot of mediocre stuff too. If you are a 5 star reviewer, I think that's great and I share your excitement of this topic and this man. But please, don't take everything in this book as fact - continue to research and find out for yourself what you do and don't believe. History is meant to be a story, often a great story, and it is told in many different ways and from many points of view. It takes reading and understanding many to fully be able to construct your own beliefs.
Good luck to you casual readers, and to Mr. Drury and Mr. Clavin, thank you for bringing this to the masses, but next time, please check your sources closer.
Some of my issues with the book are:
1. This is not an "untold" story since Red Cloud has been the subject of many works.
2. There are many factual errors regarding the Plains Indians. I won't rehash them here since many are detailed in the other one star reviews.
3. The book uses pejorative terms when describing the Native Americans, and much less so when describing whites who after all stole Native American land and caused millions of Native American deaths.
4. The text is very repetitive and includes quite a bit of information not pertinent to the tale. The book could have been half its length.
5. Even though this purports to be about Red Cloud, the man himself never becomes "real" in the book; rather he is a shallowly constructed character. We never get a feel for the true person or even an inkling of him.
6. My greatest concern is that many people will read this book thinking it is accurate history when it is not.