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Cities and the Creative Class (Englisch) Taschenbuch – 13. Dezember 2004

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""Always provocative, always insightful, Florida answers many of the questions raised by The Rise of the Creative Class, and provides new insights into the roles creativity, tolerance and amenity play in transforming places. Every city and region now has to reinvent itself to compete successfully in the global economy, and Florida provides an essential guide to this process. Cities and the Creative Class describes how successful regions can and must make the shift from low-cost to high-quality strategies..."
-Bob Yaro, President of the Regional Plan Association
"Florida and others are changing the American urban agenda. This is a guidebook to the new knowledge-based economy...He mines the best available research to lay out powerful new policy options. No wonder he is in such demand."
-Terry Nichols Clark, Professor of Sociology and Coordinator of the Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation Project, University of Chicago

"Florida and others are changing the American urban agenda. This is a guidebook to the new knowledge-based economy. He mines the best available research to lay out powerful new policy options. No wonder he is in such demand." - Terry Nichols Clark, Professor of Sociology and Coordinator of the Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation Project, University of Chicago


In the seven essays of Cities and the Creative Class - four of which have been previously published - Richard Florida outlines how certain cities succeed in attracting members of the "creative class." This class, roughly speaking, is composed of the millions of people who work in information-age economic sectors and in industries driven by innovation and talent. Cities that succeed, Florida argues, are those that are able to attract and retain creative class members. They don't do this through the traditional strategies of tax incentives, suburban housing developments, and loose regulation, though - creative class members don't care about that. Rather, they care about amenities and tolerance and are hence drawn to cities with thriving bohemias and large gay populations. It is no coincidence, Florida argues, that places like Austin and San Francisco are at the forefront of the new US economy - they play up their bohemian edge and their tolerance. Cities like Detroit, in contrast, won't stand a chance unless they can become a magnet for the new class. To prove his point, Florida has amassed a wealth of data, including gay and bohemian indices for cities.

He has found that there is a strong correlation between success in the new economy and the presence of these subcultures. In contrast to Florida's earlier book, Cities and the Creative Class provides a more academic explanation of why this has occurred, focusing in particular on the economic geography of place. It also lays out what cities need to do to have a chance at success. The book's structure is a logical progression, moving from a general political-economic theory of the creative class to a discussion of the components of success to, finally, places themselves. Florida closes the book with a prescriptive chapter on a specific place and the path it should follow - present day lower Manhattan.

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2 von 2 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen Good book, important message. 15. Mai 2013
Von Tommy Engram - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Taschenbuch Verifizierter Kauf
Anyone who cares about the future of his or her own community should read this book. Florida presents a concise summary of decades of demographic and economic research. The book is about as readable as an economic piece can be and I found it well written, if a bit repetitive. It is not a book of arguments about political issues and there is no liberal or conservative slant. Florida presents the data and draws logical conclusions.
13 von 14 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
2.0 von 5 Sternen Much worse than his other books 3. Mai 2009
Von Abacus - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Taschenbuch Verifizierter Kauf
Even though Richard Florida wrote this book three years after The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life, he calls it a prequel. He covers the same theme: cities that show openness to people and new ideas thrive as they attract the Creative Class, which in turn creates new markets and cause economic growth.

The foundation of his Creative Capital theory is his 3 Ts of economic growth: tolerance, talent, and technology. For any city to be a thriving Creative Class cluster it needs all three. The Creative Class generates new ideas and products that cause creative centers to thrive. Those include San Francisco, Seattle, Washington D.C., Boston, Denver, and Austin. The cities that are less tolerant of people and new ideas do less well. Examples include Memphis, Cleveland, St. Louis, and Indianapolis.

The author goes into more statistics then in "The Rise of the Creative Class." Unfortunately, they are flawed. He shows many scatter plots with either High Technology or Software workers per million as the dependent variable on the Y axis. He tests those against many independent variables. But, he gets very different results. For instance, when he looks at Environmental Quality vs High Technology (figure 3.4) he gets a random relationship. Meanwhile, Environmental Quality vs Software workers shows a strong relationship. When focusing on Amenities, the reverse is true. Also, his scatter plots are flawed because they select different data. The ones with High Technology have 35 cities. The ones with Software workers have only 27. So, comparisons between the two data sets are invalid. For the one variable (Gay index) that does show strong correlation with both High Technology and Social workers, he may have cherry picked the data as he uses now only 24 cities. Thus, he could have eliminated outliers (11 cities from one data set and 3 from the other) that did not confirm the strong relationship. Later, when he studies the Bohemian Index he uses a different independent variable than the ones he used for the Gay Index rendering the comparison between both indexes moot.

When analyzing the impact of amenities in attracting the Creative Class the statistics and narratives contradict each other. Table 4.2 shows Cultural Amenities with a 0.493 correlation with High Tech. Yet, a similar scatter plot on page 70 shows complete randomness. On page 71, the author states there is no relationship between cultural amenities and the Creative Class, as they strongly prefer outdoor recreational amenities. But, on page 99 he states the opposite: "The results of the correlation analysis support that talented individuals appear to be attracted more by cultural amenities than by recreational amenities or climate." Finally, on page 167 he reverses course again: "The Creative Class prefers active, participatory forms of recreation... these workers enjoy active outdoor sports. " So, which is it?

The single best statistical evidence supporting his Creative Capital Theory is a correlation matrix (fig. 5.2) on page 119 that confirms that the Bohemian Index, Gay Index, Talent, and High Technology are all very highly correlated. Unfortunately, those high correlations are contradicted by a Path Analysis (fig. 4.5) on page 106 with path coefficients that are very small. This raises further confusion.

Semantics are also confusing. The author refers to the Gay Index or the Diversity Index or even the Diversity/Gay Index to refer to the same thing. Why doesn't he stick to just one name?

In the last two chapters, he gives us a lead into his next two books. In chapter 8, he focuses on New York city and the whole East Coast corridor going all the way to Boston. This is the first Meta-Region he focuses on. In chapter 9, he muses about international competition with many cutting edge foreign Meta-Regions (London, Sydney, Tokyo, Vancouver). This will lead to his next book I was not that fond off where he sells the U.S. short, The Flight of the Creative Class: The New Global Competition for Talent. But, ultimately this research will lead to his second outstanding book, Who's Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life where he will study the 50 or so leading Meta-Regions of the World that generate most of the World's GDP and new ideas. If only he had just written "The Creative Class" and "Who'se Your City?" his track record would have been impeccable.
3.0 von 5 Sternen very dry 15. Mai 2013
Von ahard32 - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Taschenbuch Verifizierter Kauf
As a text book I didn't expect it to be thrilling but it was very dry. The topic is interesting to say the least, and the cases provide a detailed account of the effects that the creative class has on urban development.
3.0 von 5 Sternen interesting but not completely persuasive 9. Mai 2012
Von Michael Lewyn - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Gebundene Ausgabe
The basic thesis of this book is that socially tolerant cities tend to have high levels of education and high-technology employment, which in turn leads to regional economic growth. To my unsophisticated eyes, he appears to have shown some correlation between social tolerance and a high-tech economy. But his analysis raised some questions:

*Is it possible to establish which way the causal chain runs? That is, does economic growth cause tolerance or vice versa? Florida writes that declining cities like Pittsburgh and Baltimore are not sufficiently "tolerant and open." But are these cities less tolerant because of economic stagnation or vice versa?

*Florida shows that there is at least some correlation between social tolerance (defined as a high number of gay couples and people in "bohemian" occupations such as writing and the arts) and an educated workforce, and that an educated workforce is correlated with economic growth. But (and maybe I'm just misreading his data here) I'm not sure that he has established the link between social tolerance and economic growth.

*Assuming that socially tolerant places have higher income growth, is the advantage of higher income growth wiped out by higher regional cost of living? In other words, if Hipsterville has 2 percent income growth per year and exploding housing costs while Stodgeland has 1 percent growth and small-town housing costs, is Hipsterville really better off?

Finally, there are some assertions Florida makes that aren't supported by data. He suggests, for example, that "environmental quality and natural amenities are important factors in a firm's choice of location." But his own table shows that more cities have low environmental quality and high levels of hi-tech employment than have high environmental quality and high hi-tech.

Perhaps Florida's most valuable service is peripheral to his main argument: he utterly demolishes the idea that old-fashioned cultural amenities like professional sports, art museums, etc. contribute to high-talent, high-tech employment. The correlations are simply nonexistent.
10 von 13 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
1.0 von 5 Sternen Not Worth the Time 13. November 2008
Von Joe Jackson - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Taschenbuch
This honestly might be the worst book I've ever read. I'm a senior in college and was forced to read it for a Sustainable Urban Engineering elective class, and wow what a waste of time. I've never seen an author repeat himself more than Florida did here. He was saying the same things (really, check it out) on, say, page 140 as he was on page 35...that basically cities need to invest not in tax abatements to attract high-quality and talented businesses and people, but need to focus on increasing diversity and quality of life through developing amenities like good social scenes. The book is filled with a bunch of charts, tables, and graphs, backing up his claims that talent and the creative class flock to diverse regions with lots of stuff to do (which, really in my mind isn't groundbreaking information), but they again are extraordinarily repetitive. The book could have easily been condensed into a short article in and I would have gotten just as much out of it.
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