- Taschenbuch: 400 Seiten
- Verlag: Basic Books; Auflage: First Trade Paper Edition. (22. Juni 2010)
- Sprache: Englisch
- ISBN-10: 0465018564
- ISBN-13: 978-0465018567
- Vom Hersteller empfohlenes Alter: Ab 13 Jahren
- Größe und/oder Gewicht: 14,2 x 2,3 x 21,1 cm
- Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: 3 Kundenrezensionen
- Amazon Bestseller-Rang: Nr. 296.433 in Fremdsprachige Bücher (Siehe Top 100 in Fremdsprachige Bücher)
Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives (Englisch) Taschenbuch – 22. Juni 2010
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Nicholas Negroponte, author of "Being Digital"
""Born Digital" offers an excellent primer on what it means to live digitally. It should be required reading for adults trying to understand the next generation."
Howard Gardner, author of "Five Minds for the Future" and "Multiple Intelligences"
From now on, any attempt to understand what it is like to grow up or to live one's life in a digital world must begin with this outstanding, original synthesis."
Lawrence Lessig, author of "Code" and "Free Culture"
"Digital technologies are changing our kids in ways we don't yet understand. This beautifully written book will set the framework for a field that will change that. It is required reading for parents, educators, and anyone who cares about the future."
The first generation of digital natives - children who were born into and raised in the digital world - are coming of age, and soon our world will be reshaped in their image. Our economy, our cultural life, even the shape of our family life will be forever transformed. But who are these digital natives? How are they different from older generations - or digital immigrants - and what is the world theyre creating going to look like? In Born Digital, leading internet and technology experts John Palfrey and Urs Gasser offer a sociological portrait of this exotic tribe of young people who can seem, even to those merely a generation older, both extraordinarily sophisticated and strangely narrow. Based on original research, Born Digital explores a broad range of issues, from the highly philosophical to the purely practical: What does identity mean for young people who have dozens of online profiles and avatars? Should we worry about privacy issues - or is privacy even a relevant concern for digital natives? How does the concept of safety translate into an increasingly virtual world? Is stranger-danger a real problem, or a red herring?What lies ahead - socially, professionally, and psychologically - for this generation? A smart, practical guide to a brave new world and its complex inhabitants, Born Digital will be essential reading for parents, teachers, and the myriad of confused adults who want to understand the digital present - and shape the digital future. -- Dieser Text bezieht sich auf eine vergriffene oder nicht verfügbare Ausgabe dieses Titels. Alle Produktbeschreibungen
However, the authors tend to handle elementary concepts ("identity", "democracy", "creativity/art" etc.) rather lightly, so that important arguments and clashes remain - probably unintentionally - hidden. Likewise, the many sources from various disciplines suggested throughout the book do not wield as much influence as they ought to have, and the benefits of the survey's aspired "global" dimension cannot take full effect in the light of a strong focus on the USA and selected European countries.
Nevertheless, this comprehensive report clearly indicates the different kinds of problems that we, as a connected "global society" (and especially the parents the book is directed at), need to address - while, again, leaving a major question pending: Who and where is this global "we" that gets to bear such heavy responsibilities in this view?
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Palfrey and Gasser point out that the biggest concern surrounding Digital Native’s online behavior is not privacy, but safety. Digital Natives are more aware and concerned about privacy than adults think. They have been raised in a networked world so they understand the need for privacy settings and are comfortable using them. However, what the Natives fail to comprehend is that they must use the same safety precautions online that they would use if they were alone in a park. Similar dangers that exist in the offline world are replicated online just in a different form; for example, they are still exposed to strangers, bullies, predators, or stalkers just in an online format.
Palfrey and Gasser discuss what steps need to be taken to manage these dangers. They believe two aspects are key: parent-child dialogues and government intervention. Parents should not reprimand their children and ban Internet use in their home for poor online behavior. Most parents abuse the Internet, as well, so any ban would come across as hypocritical. Instead parents must communicate to better understand their children’s activity online and monitor their actions. Not only is it nearly impossible to avoid technology in this Digital Age, it also does not solve the issue of safety online. Children will find a way, with or without their parent’s permission, to get online; instead of ignoring their children’s use they should engage in it. The authors strongly believe that laws and regulations also need to be created and enforced by the government to protect children online. For example, governments could instruct websites to refrain from showing obscene material to any user identifying as a child. Therefore, when a parent creates an account for their child and registers them as underage, they can trust that no inappropriate material will accidently pop up on a website.
Another major issue in the Digital Age is not even our own behavior online, but how third parties are using the information we share online. Digital dossiers, or digital compilations of information related to a user’s actions online, are created and expanded without our knowledge every day. The information included in these digital dossiers includes all of our activity online that can be traced back to our name. From the simplest Google searches to the most private medical records stored online, all of this is kept in our dossiers. Most of the information is stored in the “deep web,” where search engines cannot reach it. However, we are unaware of what sites are selling our information to third parties for marketing or research purposes. So why do we choose to store our credit card information on a site such as Amazon without definitive knowledge of who will have access to it? Palfrey and Gasser have concluded that the digital age revolves around convenience. Users trade control for convenience without considering the consequences that might come from this. Therefore we are putting ourselves at more of a risk each and every day.
Why do we subject ourselves to this risky situation when we could easily avoid the danger by staying offline? Palfrey and Gasser fail to address what motivates users to trade the risks for the rewards of embracing the digital age. However, in Privacy Online, Taddicken and Jers (2011) acknowledge why we give up our privacy in order to reap the benefits of the Internet. The Social Web satisfies four crucial needs: cognitive needs, affective needs, social integrative needs, and personal integrative needs. For example, in terms of cognitive needs, we receive guidance from other users by engaging on blogs. We can also entertain ourselves with content on YouTube to satisfy our affective needs. Overall, what we gain from being connected online overpowers the risks we might subject ourselves to. This concept of risk versus rewards aligns with the privacy paradox. Although we are concerned about privacy and how much is disclosed online, users have not limited their sharing or time spent online.
The world around us is changing every day, but instead of fighting the changes, we should embrace the digital world that is growing. But embracing it is just the first step; we must prepare ourselves to handle the dangers that follow. Palfrey and Gasser emphasize the need for both adult and government intervention in order to teach Digital Natives how to protect themselves from the dangers, such as safety. The future for Digital Natives is uncertain, and that poses a problem for parents. They want to protect their children, however it is difficult to protect them from something so foreign to themselves. With dialogue, boundaries, and the help of government policy, parents should have no fear; they will soon learn how to successfully raise their children in a digital age.
Palfrey, J. & Gasser, U. (2008). Born Digital: Understanding the first generation of Digital
Natives. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Taddicken, M., & Jers, C. (2011). The uses of privacy online: Trading a loss of privacy for social
web gratifications. In S. Trepte & L. Reinecke (Eds.), Privacy Online (pp. 143-158). Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Germany.
The first four chapters, "Identity," "Dossiers," "Privacy," and "Safety," deal with the relationship between digitized data and individual privacy. Chapter 4 deals with the mounting concern of abundant violent and sexual imagery. Digital natives are constantly reinventing and expanding the offline social sphere by creating profiles on social networking websites such as MySpace and Facebook. They tend to take greater risks by providing personal information on these sites as well as with other websites. What happens to personal information over time? Information may be secure but for how long? According to Palfrey and Gasser, the security of information is a mounting concern that can't be answered yet. In "Privacy," Palfrey and Gasser raise important questions concerning privacy. Everyday Digital Natives cede more and more information to various websites without any notion of what may done with the information at a later date. What are the ramifications of so much data being in the hands of other people? Is the definition of privacy changing permanently? Despite the first 3 chapters' cautionary tone Palfrey and Gasser do provide some hopeful examples. Digital Natives also have power to make changes by rallying together as they did when they formed the "Students against Facebook" group. This group (750,000 members) was able to get Facebook to alter its privacy settings. Collaborative action, like this one, is one of many the authors cite as a growing positive force. In "Safety" the authors turn their lens to the easily accessible violent and sexual content that permeates the web. Digital Natives and those that are a bit younger are increasing exposed to content they may not be ready to see. Good judgment and some parental controls may help, but according to the authors, a large portion of Digital Natives are developing a surprisingly mature attitude about the excess "noise" on the web.
The next three chapters, "Creators," and "Pirates," and "Quality," deal with the very free, creator heavy content that is both created and consumed by Digital Natives. Digital Natives are increasingly creating mash-ups, videos and other media on a large scale. The authors are very optimistic and encouraging in this regard. Never before has there been such a large scale collaborative movement to share and create.
Concerns are raised around the notion of artist property, but societal norms are ultimately to blame for copyright infringement as well as digital media theft (illegal downloading of music and movies). In the chapter "Quality," the authors discuss concerns with Digital Natives' consumption of information found on the web. There is so much information, how accurate is it? Are they able to detect the good from the bad? According to the authors, Digital Natives are making decisions based on information found on the web. From health concerns, to education how accurate and reliable is the information they are reading?
The following chapters "Overload," and "Aggressors," deal with the affects of information overload and violent imagery and gaming. The authors' main questions in "Overload" are what if any the affects of the massive stream of information on human cognition. Digital Natives are consuming more media in less time than earlier generations. According to the authors, the results are increased multi-tasking and shorter attention spans. The more information available the more likely a Digital Native may grow confused and have trouble making decisions. The authors end the chapter by citing the human ability to adapt to new technologies. In this regard, the web is no exception. The next chapter deals with the growing interest in violent video games and imagery that can be found on the web. Digital Natives are increasingly becoming active players in fantasy worlds online where they kill other players in brutal ways. The authors main concern is the repeated "trigger" of violent behavior brought on by this type of gaming. The repeated psychological exposure to violent gaming may manifest in real life.
The last three chapters "Innovators," "Learners," and "Activists," Deal with more optimistic content. Digital Natives are increasingly collaborating online and developing goods and services that can have huge paydays. Young entrepreneurs are creating innovative products online for a fraction of the start-up cost of earlier generations. How Digital Natives learn is in a state of flux. Multi-tasking is the norm as well as rapid "at a glance" consumption of information. What are the affects of this? Is it all negative or are Digital Natives still learning but just differently? The last chapter deals with the growing tendency of Digital Natives to collaborate online. Can online collaboration affect political change? The authors seem optimistic in this regard. Real-time collaboration online can help bring transparency to political actions, increasing the likely hood that destructive political acts are evaluated in a global context.
The book doesn't spend too much time dealing with one specific issue, but tries to cover a broad array of subject matter. This strategy helps create awareness in older generations and gives them enough information on a certain topic for them to delve further if and when needed.
Another strong point is the comparison of new adaptive behavior with older technological trends. In Chapter 8, the authors provide comparisons between industrialization and developing city life with information overload. This helps frame a growing concern in historical context, contributing to an optimistic interpretation of human ability to adapt to significant technological advances.
The book's tone is ultimately cautionary (especially the first three chapters) and may overwhelm an older, less tech savvy audience. However, the authors do try to balance the good with the bad and the book ultimately ends on a positive note. The real strength in the book is awareness. Some older generations just don't know where to start where their kids are concerned. This book provides enough examples to bring possibly overwhelming topics into a context that can be understood by those that find themselves somewhat powerless to help. Finally, there is enough information to dig deeper if those in a position to help find that they need to.
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