- Taschenbuch: 496 Seiten
- Verlag: Vintage; Auflage: Reprint (11. Februar 2014)
- Sprache: Englisch
- ISBN-10: 0307475611
- ISBN-13: 978-0307475619
- Größe und/oder Gewicht: 13,2 x 2,3 x 20,3 cm
- Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: Schreiben Sie die erste Bewertung
- Amazon Bestseller-Rang: Nr. 546.372 in Fremdsprachige Bücher (Siehe Top 100 in Fremdsprachige Bücher)
The Anatomy of Violence: The Biological Roots of Crime (Englisch) Taschenbuch – 11. Februar 2014
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Praise for Adrian Raine's The Anatomy of Violence
“Provocative. . . . [Raine] makes a good case that certain genetic, neurological, and physiological factors do predict violent behavior. . . . He argues, convincingly, that . . . benign and relatively cheap interventions could have huge social benefits.”
—New York Times Book Review
“Well-written and engaging. . . . Mr. Raine reminds us of all the interesting things we do know about genes, brains and the environment that can tilt someone toward anti-social behavior. . . . A good read. What makes it something more is Mr. Raine's contention that violence is a public-health issue and that this forces upon society some uncomfortable ideas about possible interventions.”
—The Wall Street Journal
“Lively, engaging. . . . A convincing case that violent criminals are biologically different from the rest of us. . . . [Raine] has the research at his fingertips—not surprising, since he carried out much of it—and makes a compelling case that society needs to grapple with the biological underpinnings of violent crime just as vigorously as the social causes, if not more so.”
“Anyone who truly seeks an answer to questions about nature vs. nurture should read Raine’s book. The Anatomy of Violence includes many interesting studies, with provocative findings. He also raises important philosophical questions about what we could, and perhaps should, do with what we’re learning.”
“Readable, and at times controversial. . . . [The Anatomy of Violence] is worth reading by anyone who has an interest in violence and criminal behavior, not because it provides definitive answers, but for its value in setting the stage for ongoing thought and discussion.”
—Washington Independent Review of Books
“Are ‘criminal tendencies’ hard-wired or acquired? . . . Psychologist Adrian Raine argues the biological case, marshalling swathes of findings and case studies of murderers and rapists. . . . Provocative and bristling with data.”
“Groundbreaking. . . . Never before has a ‘map of the criminal mind’ been written about so convincingly. . . . Raine offers us the most compelling look to date at the connection between human genetics and human acts of violence. . . . The Anatomy of Violence will convince even the most skeptical that there is a genetic or biological cause for the violence exhibited by psychopaths across all cultures. . . . The Anatomy of Violence is an astonishingly accessible account of all the major elements—environmental, social, biochemical, psychological, and neurological—related to crime and human violence, leading us to the conclusion that yes, some people are natural born killers.”
—New York Journal of Books
“An extremely informative, thoughtful and illuminating book . . . a tour de force.”
—David P Farrington, Psychological Medicine
“Fascinating. . . . The message that ought to be taken from this book is that criminality should be seen as a public health problem. Excellent child nutrition, strict controls on the use of heavy metals, classes in parenting and extra learning support for children and parents from difficult backgrounds. . . . Raine’s book represents a compelling argument that they are not optional extras, boom-time luxuries, but measures that have the potential to save countless billions, and countless lives.”
—The New Statesman
“A passionately argued, well-written, and fascinating take on the biology of violence and its legal and ethical implications.”
—Publishers Weekly (starred review)
“Compelling research. . . . Although the topic will certainly continue to provoke controversy, Raine offers a highly accessible look at the latest research on the biology behind criminal behavior.”
“An exhaustive, unvarnished survey of what is known about the neurobiological correlates of physical violence. It is deeply informative and it makes for disquieting reading. It wisely refrains from claiming a single cause for the problem or advocating a single solution. It is an indispensable reference.”
—Antonio Damasio, author of Descartes’ Error and Self Comes to Mind
"Important. . . . A thorough yet sparkling, erudite but beautifully written account. . . . Raine discusses complex scientific and ethical issues and illustrates them by drawing on a series of famous, sometimes unsettling case studies, thereby making scientific knowledge more accessible to a wide audience. What emerges is a rich picture of the complexities of human violence. The book is gripping from start to finish."
—Stephanie van Goozen, Professor of Psychology, Cardiff University
“[The Anatomy of Violence] is not only for students of this topic, but for any inquiring mind. It is just simply captivating, both emotionally and intellectually.”
—Diana Fishbein, Ph.D., Senior Fellow and Scientist, Transdisciplinary Science and Translational Prevention Program, RTI International
“Indispensable. . . . A highly readable, often gripping account of how our biology affects our violence. The book’s great success is that it makes how we learned about crime and the brain as exciting as what we have learned. If we take this book seriously, criminology can move much closer to solving some of the biggest mysteries we face.”
—Lawrence W. Sherman, Wolfson Professor of Criminology, Director, Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge
“At once highly educational and surprisingly entertaining. . . . An easy, highly enjoyable, and richly rewarding read. The significant social, biological, and legal aspects of violent behavior make it a virtual minefield of sensitive and controversial issues.”
—Joe P. Newman, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison
“A great read. . . . This is a book that will make you reflect on how you personally and society more generally views and responds to antisocial behavior. Is it time to think of violence as a disease, where rehabilitation takes precedence over punishment, and where prevention may be the only real cure? Read the book, and then you be the judge.”
—Mark S. Frankel, Ph.D., Director, Scientific Responsibility, Human Rights and Law Program, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
“Courageous, brilliant, and provocative. . . . Based on the latest scientific evidence Raine poses the fundamental question, Where does society draw the line between the effects of nature and nurture on brain function?”
—Larry W. Swanson, Ph.D., University Professor and Appleman Professor of Biological Sciences, Neurology, and Psychology, University of Southern California
“With The Anatomy of Violence, Raine brings the full force of his pioneering research, clear-eyed analysis, and sound policy prescriptions to our violence problem in America. Get ready for a tour de force in science, and one hell of a gripping read!”
—Brandon C. Welsh, professor of criminology, Northeastern University, author of Saving Children from a Life of Crime
"Anytime I need to know anything about the biology of crime, I go straight away to Adrian Raine. . . . Indispensable reading for students, researchers, practitioners, and policy makers."
—Terrie Moffitt, professor, Duke University and King's College London
Über den Autor und weitere Mitwirkende
Adrian Raine is the Richard Perry University Professor of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania, and a leading authority on the biology of violence. After leaving secondary school to become an airline accountant, he abandoned his financial career and spent four years as a prison psychologist to understand why some individuals become violent psychopaths while others do not.Alle Produktbeschreibungen
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Raine is an adept writer, enthusiastic about his subject and impressively balanced in his approach. The book is exceptionally well organized with a logical, easy-to-read flow of ideas and concepts. The case studies are fascinating, and the scientific results rendered in way that both maintains their intellectual integrity and makes them accessible to the lay reader.
The author is upfront about the interconnected impacts of nature and nurture, clearly demonstrating what effects are strictly biological, which ones are socially driven, and how differing combinations of nature & nurture can produce radically different results. The section on the impacts on fetal/infant brain development reminded me of The Crazy Makers: How the Food Industry Is Destroying Our Brains and Harming Our Children in that it shows you the biological impacts of social choices, which was fascinating and extremely well done.
I think this book should be required reading for parents, teachers, and the law enforcement/justice systems en masse - while Raine never claims to have all the answers, his insights are invaluable and will change the way you look at violence and crime. This was a pleasure to read, and I will look for more by this author in the future.
After 28 years working in law enforcement, I believe that Raine's work is groundbreaking and necessary, but over time - the reality of the models will edge back to the center - namely that nature and nurture both play a part in criminality.
I believe this book would be good for folks in law enforcement, criminology, neuropsychology, and lay persons who want to be able to have a grasp on the current issues. After reading this book, I would recommend you visit 'The Science of Evil' by Simon Baron-Cohen for an alternate take on the issue.
All the best,
The author, Adrian Raine, is a well published professor at Penn University in criminology and psychology. His latest book, while helpful to the professional, is designed to present to the layperson the latest findings in the biology of crime. Most chapters begin with a true story of murderers, or rapists, etc., but whose behavior is often bizarre enough to both disgust and make one curious as to what was causing their criminal behavior. He proceeds in each chapter to dissect the criminal's behavior and place it in context of his biological process and the resulting crime.
Raine is at his writing best and most informative when he stays to the clinical task of helping the reader understand the neurological system. His explanations are clear and he treats his readers with respect on a difficult subject for many of us.
Raine, unfortunately is not content on holding to neuroscience. He also wants the reader to understand and appreciate how another new discipline in psychology, evolutionary psychology, can help us comprehend the criminal mind. On this area, I find him preachy and sometimes condescending to his audience. For example, in one chapter her presents interesting studies that correctly show parents who kill the children are more likely to do so when the child is an infant than an older child. Raine uses this as evidence of evolution (the parent does not want to expend parental time/effort on an unwanted child) and dismisses contrary but simpler theories such as the fact that infants can be so incredibly annoying especially to the very young mother. His dismissal comes in terms of challenging the reader to consider when they were most annoying to our parents, as an infant or as a teenager. As if any of us have a recollection of our infancy. While reading I wondered how many middle of the nights the professor woke to care for his crying babies (I don't know if he has children). I know for my children at those times I often thought, "It's a good thing you are mine and I love you!"
I do not say that evolutionary psychology ideas are bogus, but in comparison to much of the neuroscience presentation, he is reverting to purely hypothetical ideas with little to no empirical basis. This, therefore, weakens his central thesis at least in my opinion. I also found his condemnation of the death penalty more as propagandizing than scientifically rational. I too share serious concerns about this type of penalty, but Raine treats the issue more as a pugilist than a scientist. This effort removes him from the field of science and frankly fails to convert the uncommitted.
Regardless of these qualms, I believe that Raine provides both the professional and the public with enough information on the biology of crime as to make this book a worthy read. I intend on recommending it to my students.
The part that I didn't expect, and was pleasantly surprised by, was how incredibly readable this book is. Though it incorporates a lot of theory and hard science, it reads with energy and a high level of anecdotal detail that makes it hard to put down. It is anything but dry and boring (as these books can sometimes be). Despite a background in accounting and neurobiology, Adrian Raine knows how to weave stories into his content and structure his prose such that you feel like you're part of a forensic story-telling anthology. He uses case studies, personal experience, and science to the best possible purpose. This is, by far, one of the more accessible and interesting "textbook" type books I've ever experienced.
The only down side to the book, and this is common in all books that deal with science, is that there is a clear bias present in certain parts of the book. It is clear that Dr. Raine is an advocate of evolutionary theory and, especially in the early part of the book, he attempts to shoehorn far too many things about human behavior into that framework and to dismiss or mitigate the effects of environment. For instance, while at one point he says that a study showed that 21% of a child's behavior is the result of parenting (and 50% is genetic according to other studies), he mentions without explanation that another theorist suggest that parents have zero effect on their kid's behavior (attributing the remaining "nurture" experience to outside influences like school and society).
While the bias was a bit frustrating at times, it is quite limited to certain portions of the book and can easily be taken in the context of all scientific bias. It in no way takes away from the major portion of the book or how engrossing it is. This is a rare book that has depth and breadth of knowledge and is not dumbed down, yet is still an interesting read.
Throughout the book, Raine describes many different physical factors, ranging from tiny differentials in the size of particular brain regions, to an excess of Manganese in the diet, and shows studies where researchers have found a large degree of correlation between these physical factors and criminal violence. Certain researchers have shown, for example, that the lead in gasoline, and the removal of lead from gasoline, describes nearly 100% of the rise and fall of crime in all societies for the past fifty years. Raine is modestly skeptical, at best, of any of the research that he cites (which amounts to thousands of studies -- the book, to its credit, is rigorous with citations). The net effect is an array of various smoking guns linking physical qualities to violent criminal behavior. But that itself presents a problem -- they can't all be smoking guns! A lot of the research has to be wrong in order for some of it to be right. Raine doesn't seem to be conscious of this problem.
A skeptical read of this book will lead to an inevitable conclusion about the research that Raine describes: "a whole lot of confirmation bias goin' on!" In a classic example, Raine explains how one of his graduate students spent months re-analyzing the data from decades old research done by one of Raine's mentors. The mentor, the original scientist who produced the data, had concluded it did not show a statistically significant correlation between one physical factor and antisocial behavior. Raine's graduate student, after months of working at it, was eventually able to come up with a statistical treatment to prove that the data actually did show a statistically significant (in fact, very significant) correlation. Raine tells this story with pride in his graduate student's accomplishment and the way it reinforces his beliefs, but an outside observer like myself cannot help being reminded of the old adage from medical research that if you torture a set of data long enough with statistical analysis it will eventually tell you exactly what you want to hear.
In another notable example of confirmation bias and credulity, Raine describes his groundbreaking research working with temp workers. He has made the truly incredible discovery that nearly 50% of temp workers in the United States are clinical grade psychopaths! Raine is amazed at all the horror stories of rapes and violence he and his research team are eventually able to wheedle out of these temp workers over a period of years. It doesn't occur to him that when you are paying people money to tell you what you want to hear.... they might actually tell you exactly what you want to hear!
Those things are problematic, but some of the content of the book is simply factually incorrect. For example, Raine describes in lurid, almost gushing, detail the crimes and life stories of many serial killers, including Henry Lee Lucas and Gerald Stano. The life stories of these last two men feature prominently in Raine's discussion of nature versus nurture. Problem: both Henry Lee Lucas and Gerald Stano are famous for being "serial confessors" whose supposed crimes and endless "whopper" stories have been widely discredited and debunked. Raine, being widely recognized as one of the world's leading criminological experts, ought to know this, yet he presents their discredited stories as if they were established facts, and attempts to draw conclusions about crime and human nature from them.
In another example, Raine says that research on lying has shown that people are universally bad at telling when others are lying to them, and that trained law enforcement and security officers are, if anything, worse at identifying liars than the rest of us. The two or three studies that Raine cites in support of this are old and not particularly convincing in their methodology. In one, for example, people were asked to judge whether young children were lying when responding to a handful of yes or no questions (even the study participants told the researchers they thought it was stupid, because you can't judge much from a short video clip of a child saying "yes, yes, no."). Raine doesn't mention the fact, which he is hopefully aware of, that decades of other studies have found the opposite to be true: both that some people are unusually good at recognizing liars and that some trained law enforcement or security agencies are unusually good at it. This is one of the few examples in the book where I took the time to dig fairly deeply into the research being cited, so it is worrying to contemplate all the facts and evidence cited in the book which I did not have time to dig into.
In another case, Raine trots out the old acorn that finger length ratios predict all manner of things about people, even though that idea has been pretty thoroughly discredited. In cases like this we are nearly stepping back into the middle ages.
A great deal of the research that Raine has built his reputation as a scientist on is in the field of fMRI brain scanning, which skeptical psychologists and neuroscientists have famously debunked as "the new phrenology". Colorful fMRI scans showing the contrast between healthy brains and criminal brains are a major feature of this book. It is worth being aware that this area of research has been sharply criticized, and that the colorful scans created by researchers to gain grant money and to impress the public (and sell books!) are misleading. What a raw fMRI scan of the brain looks like is just a lot of noise everywhere, because the brain is active everywhere pretty much all the time. It is only through enormous amounts of statistical fiddling (read: confirmation bias ahead) that researchers boil scans of brains that are brightly lit all over, down into scans where only the desired areas of the brain are "activated". Then, at the very end, they color them up arbitrarily to make them look dramatic. This is why it takes months or years to analyze relatively small numbers of these types of scans, instead of minutes.
Raine makes a pretense of defensiveness throughout the book, describing at length how scientists who favored a biological cause of criminality and violence have been marginalized in the recent past, but I think he protests too much. His book has been, as far as I can tell, universally lauded, and the idea that biology plays a large part in criminality is already widely embraced in the 21st Century. However, I wonder how many of the laudatory blurbs and reviews for this book are from readers who actually read it carefully and dug into it with a critical mind?
I'm sympathetic to the idea that antisocial behavior, and psychopathy in particular, could be largely biological in origin, but the science has to be good. Raine's book left me convinced that it is not. Maybe it will be some day in the future, but apparently not now.