- Taschenbuch: 380 Seiten
- Verlag: Paradigma (1. Oktober 2009)
- Sprache: Englisch
- ISBN-10: 1906833133
- ISBN-13: 978-1906833138
- Größe und/oder Gewicht: 15,2 x 2,2 x 22,9 cm
- Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: Schreiben Sie die erste Bewertung
- Amazon Bestseller-Rang: Nr. 828.936 in Fremdsprachige Bücher (Siehe Top 100 in Fremdsprachige Bücher)
Ages in Chaos I: From the Exodus to King Akhnaton (Englisch) Taschenbuch – 1. Oktober 2009
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The volumes of the series Ages in Chaos deal not only with events in a far-away epoch of the past, but actually with the chaotic state of our present view of that time. Immanuel Velikovsky unveils in his well-known systematic and easy-to-follow presentation facts of an importance that cannot be underestimated. Starting from worldwide natural catastrophes in antiquity he succeeds in straightening up the historical events which have gotten into a complete disorder in our history books. In doing so he shows how chaotic our view of history - but also the way of thinking and working of those who have created this view - actually is.
All this makes the book a very interesting and exciting reading leaving the specialist of old history stunned with surprise or dismay, and presenting the layman with fascinating understandings. At the same time it shows the precision of the recordings of our ancestors, above all of the authors of the Old Testament, and gives us revealing insights in the way scientists work.
Therefore even those who normally are not really interested in old history get fundamentally new perspectives and inputs. For on the one hand it is straightforward to assume the chaotic state of affaires revealed in the established teaching and in the conventional methodology to be found in other scientific disciplines as well. On the other hand quite a few questions might come up about inconsistencies in other historical epochs, too. After all, our view of the world and our present-day society are built upon what we believe to know from history, and the learning from history, which is referred to so often, crucially depends upon the correctness of the information about the historical context and course of events.
Summing up, this book is far more than "just" a dry history book for the specialist. It can be the starting point for a critical and open enlightenment. For when you have seen clearly and precisely at the example presented here how justified - in fact necessary - the questioning of even well established doctrines is, you will more easily follow up "heretical" doubts in other areas as well.
Ages in Chaos was conceived in the spring of 1940. It was then that I realized that the Exodus had occurred in the midst of a natural upheaval and that this catastrophe might prove to be the connecting link between the Israelite and Egyptian histories, if ancient Egyptian texts were found to contain references to a similar event. I found such references and before long had worked out a plan of reconstruction of ancient history from the Exodus to the conquest of the East by Alexander the Great. Already by October of the same year I had come to understand the nature and extent of that catastrophe. For a decade after that I worked simultaneously on Ages in Chaos and Worlds in Collision, the present work requiring the lion's share of the toil.
Ages in Chaos covers largely the period dealt with in Worlds in Collision - the eight hundred years from the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt to the invasion of Palestine by Sennacherib in 687 before the present era, and the additional three and a half centuries to Alexander of Macedonia, altogether twelve hundred years of the history of the ancient East. But whereas the first work concentrated on the description of the physical history of the period, the present work deals with its political and cultural aspects. The occurrence of a widespread natural catastrophe serves here only as the point of departure for constructing a revised chronology of the times and lands under consideration.
I searched the records of one land after another and went from one generation to another, taking from everywhere hints and clues, evidence and proof. Because I had to discover and to collate them, this book is written like a detective story. It is well known that in detective work unexpected associations are often built on minute details: a fingerprint on a bar of metal, a hair on a window sill, a burnt-out match in the bushes. Some details of an archaeological, chronological, or paleographic nature may seem minor matters, but they are the fingerprints of an investigation in which the history of many nations in many generations is vitally involved. Such details are not included to make the reading difficult; they are necessary to establish the main thesis of this work. Therefore, any attempt to read this book cursorily will prove to be a fruitless undertaking.Alle Produktbeschreibungen
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This was a revolutionary book which launched the revisionist work of such men as Courville, Bimson, Rohl and James in rewriting ancient Egyptian history.
Velikovsky's work was condemned for several reasons: 1) he was the first since Isaac Newton to do it (Really!); 2) he dared to use the Old Testament Scriptures as historical texts (If you can imagine!); 3) after publication of his catastrophist theory in Worlds in Collision, everyone "knew" he was a crank; and 4) he was obviously wrong.
Well, as his appendix to Peoples of the Sea adequately demonstrates, the conventional dating scheme has no basis whatsoever; the Old Testament has been amazing verified and vindicated by archaeology back to the middle chapters of Genesis, and no archaeological discovery has ever proven a biblical passage wrong; in some ways he may have been a crank, but so was Newton (who believed in alchemy); and he has as much chance of being right as anybody else, and more than most.
The only point I quibbled with was his identification of the Papyrus Ipuwer as an Egyptian version of the Exodus story written by Moses in the Book of Exodus. This was critical because it was the pivotal point of his entire reconstruction. In that, he was correct, but my analysis of the Papyrus Ipuwer (read it on my website at [...]) showed that it was not exactly an Egyptian version of Moses' story. Ipuwer wrote Act II of the drama about which Moses had written Act I and skipped town across the Red Sea.
So Velikovsky's identification of the papyrus was wrong, but his use of it was correct. He makes an excellent case for the Hyksos being the biblical Amalekites, for Hatshepsut being the Queen of Sheba, and for Thutmose III being the pharaoh who sacked the Temple in Jerusalem after Solomon's death. Dr. V also did a fabulous analysis of the El Amarna letters and connected them to the Egypt of the Pharaoh Akhnaton.
Highly compelling reading, as are all of his books.
Current archeological studies in the Holy Land indicate catastrophic events did occur throughout the Middle East sometime around 1200 B.C.that caused the collapse of all cultures for centuries. This author has linked the cuneiform clay tablets of other cultures with events recorded in the Old Testament and has found events can be synchronized down to the names of rulers involved on both sides. To me it was a fascinating study.
Like Velikovsky's other works Ages in Chaos is hugely absorbing and makes such perfect sense, and is backed up by so much evidence, that it is impossible to ignore. It is easy to see now why Velikovsky was seen by the academic community as such a threat to the status quo - quite simply because the corrected version of history he presented is far more believable, more complete, and backed by more evidence than the accepted - obviously incorrect and certainly incomplete - version of history on which so many academics have built their reputations. I urge all who have not read his works to do so now - you will never look at history the same way again.
Throughout Ages in Chaos Velikovsky demonstrates the need for a five-and-a-half century reduction in Egyptian Eighteenth Dynasty dates, to bring them into line with those of the Old Testament. His identification of Hatshepsut, for example, with the Queen of Sheba (who visited Solomon) was absolutely correct, as was his equation of Thutmose III with Shishak, the pharaoh who plundered the Jerusalem Temple. Attempts by the critics to pick holes in these pivotal synchronisms have proved futile. The suggestion, for example, that Punt (the destination of Hatshepsut's famous expedition) was in Africa (made by David Lorton and John Bimson), is fairly easily refuted, as I have shown in several places. The "African" creatures shown on the Deir el Bahri reliefs, which the critics made so much of, were all anciently found in Syria/Palestine, and most especially in the Jordan Valley. To this day, the flora and fauna of the latter region, with its tropical climate, is described as typically "African".
The only significant misidentifications in Ages in Chaos came in the chapters dealing with Akhnaton and the Amarna Letters. Velikovsky argued that Abdi-Hiba, the King of Jerusalem at the time, was the same man as Jehoshaphat, and that the King of Hatti who threatened northern Syria in the time of the Letters was Shalmaneser III. Neither of these identifications can be sustained. In fact, a veritable mountain of evidence shows that the King of Hatti in the time of Akhnaton was Suppiluliumas I, whilst the King of Assyria, who actually wrote several letters to Akhnaton, was Ashuruballit. Neither of these characters can be identified with Shalmaneser III. However, although Velikovsky got it wrong here, it is important to stress that he was wrong by only a couple of decades. As I have demonstrated in some detail in various places, Ashuruballit of the Letters was the same person as Ashurnasirpal II, the father of Shalmaneser III. In the same way, Abdi-Hiba of Jerusalem was not Jehoshaphat, but Jehoshaphat's father Asa. Furthermore, Labayu, the troublesome king of Shechem, whose activities caused much harm in the region, was one and the same as Baasha, the warlike king of Israel who caused so much trouble for Asa.
The layout of Ages in Chaos was therefore broadly correct with regard to biblical history. However, it was not, as can easily be shown, correct with regard to classical history: For the classical and biblical histories are not accurately aligned and are out of sync with regard to each other by two centuries. Thus all the characters and events described in Ages in Chaos, Vol. 1, need to be moved down the timescale, lock, stock, and barrel, by a further two centuries, to make them synchronize properly with ancient history as recorded by the Greeks. This can be illustrated most easily with regard to the Mita or Mitanni, the Indo-Iranian rulers of Upper Mesopotamia in the time of Egypt's Eighteenth Dynasty. These folk can only have been the Medes, whose Great Kings dominated the Near East during the seventh century BC.
This then is the correct location of the Theban pharaohs of the Eighteenth Dynasty, as well as the Early Monarchy of Israel, with whom the latter interacted. Hatshepsut therefore did not visit Solomon in 940 or 930 BC, but closer to 700 BC.
I found the book highly convincing, and highly readable. I enjoyed every page of it and recommend it wholeheartedly.