- Taschenbuch: 336 Seiten
- Verlag: W. W. Norton & Company; Auflage: Reprint (17. Mai 2005)
- Sprache: Englisch
- ISBN-10: 0393326802
- ISBN-13: 978-0393326802
- Größe und/oder Gewicht: 14 x 2 x 20,8 cm
- Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: Schreiben Sie die erste Bewertung
- Amazon Bestseller-Rang: Nr. 560.922 in Fremdsprachige Bücher (Siehe Top 100 in Fremdsprachige Bücher)
Adam's Curse: A Future Without Men: A Science That Reveals Our Genetic Destiny (Englisch) Taschenbuch – 17. Mai 2005
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Bryan Sykes follows up The Seven Daughters of Eve with the equally challenging and well-written Adam's Curse. This time, instead of following humanity's heritage back to the first women, Sykes looks forward to a possible future without men. The seeds of the book's topics were sown when Sykes met a pre-eminent pharmaceutical company chairman who shared his surname. Using the Y chromosome, which is passed nearly unchanged from father to son, the author found that he shared a distant ancestor with the other Sykes. Along the way, he discovered that the Y chromosome was worth examining more closely. The first third of Adam's Curse is devoted to a clear and comprehensive lesson about genetics, the second narrates several fascinating stories of tracing ancestry via the Y chromosome, and the last chapters explore the history of male humanity and its future. Some readers will eagerly skim until they reach Chapter 21, where Sykes gets to the heart of the matter--why and how the Y chromosome has created a world where men overwhelmingly own the wealth and power, commit the crimes, and fight the wars. He uses the structural puniness of the Y chromosome to demonstrate that men are as unnecessary biologically as they are dominant socially. Sykes' provocative and quite personal book is likely to be unpopular among science readers who prefer their biology divorced from sociology, but his points taken in context will be difficult to refute. --Therese Littleton -- Dieser Text bezieht sich auf eine andere Ausgabe: Taschenbuch.
"Like the very best science writers ... Bryan Sykes explicates the elegant logic of the natural world."Alle Produktbeschreibungen
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This is not a dry recitation of the facts, by any means. It contains his personal story of unraveling some of these puzzles himself, told in an a lively and amusing manner, sure to hold the reader's interest. There are history lessons, such as the one about the lamentable foul-ups of the microscopists trying to count the chromosomes. And Sykes tale of observing his own Y chromosome, carrying out the manipulations with his own hands, is described in some detail. There are stories about his coworkers, including the giant William Hamilton, who probably is second only to Darwin in developing the theory of evolution. But mostly it is the story of the application of modern genetics to the varied populations of the world, the story of their migrations and conquests, and the struggle of the Y chromosome to survive.
Sykes' distinct approach is to apply some relatively simple molecular probes to Y chromosomes obtained from many individuals in a variety of populations on a fairly big scale, rather than the other important task, carried on by a myriad of scientists, of trying to understand all the biological minutiae of a single prototypical human.
His finding the Y chromosome inherited today by about 500,000 descendants of the founder of the MacDonald, MacDougalls and the MacAlisters Clans is quite fun to read, and the similar tale of his discovering the Sykes clan reveals something about how curiosity driven science can be so deeply satisfying. The stories of the Vikings, the Polynesians, the Great Khan, and conquest by the Spaniards in South America are all covered here and the new insights revealed by their Y chromosomes gives a tantalizing glimpse of those still to come from other parts of the world. I can't wait.
Probably most unusual for a book of this sort, is that Sykes, a distinguished scientist, lays on some pretty far out, half-baked, probably wrong, but testable ideas about such things as the origin of homosexuality, the war between the sexes from the perspective of the Y and mitochondrial chromosomes, and even the possible future course of the evolution of the Y to its ultimate demise. This is a refreshing contrast to the plodding certainties of the refereed publications of the academics, hedged about with all the required caveats and cautions. In spite of his sometimes over-anthropomorphized chromosomes, this is an entertaining read, rewarding to readers yearning to understand the human beast.
This is a wonderful chapter, well written and compelling ... especially for me! It's also quite correct. Unfortunately Prof. Sykes won't share his DNA results with other researchers, genealogists, and the general Clan Donald membership, so a new study was set up by the Clan Donald, and I am privy to their actual numbers. They are rock solid proof.
Seeing the actual numbers .... the Clan Donald study has published the most likely actual DNA marker numbers for Somerled ... leads farther back. Sykes's next chapter after MacDonald is about Genghis Khan, who hailed from central Asia. Interestingly, and this is where secrecy can be counterproductive, someone noticed that Somerled numbers, as well as lots of Icelanders' ones, showed a close affinity for men in a certain central Asian tribe. Time will tell whether the Vikings themselves came from central Asia. Stay tuned.
I found most of the book, not just my own chapter, quite entertaining, except for the part that makes up the title. It is simply baloney. As others have reviewed, Sykes has a good popular style and gets across a goodly dose of the science of DNA to the non-genealogist layman. It's just the disastrously stupid idea that human men will disappear ... it's odd he does not note that the exact same argument applies to all mammals .... and they've been around a LONG time ... that ruins this book. I need not say much more, as others have pilloried Sykes sufficiently for his transgressions.
Is Sykes' main point in "Adam's Curse": 1) that the Y chromosome is dying out and thank goodness it is, because if not it would eventually destroy us all? 2) that the Y chromosome is dying out and actually that's a bad thing which we'd better do something to stop? 3) that the Y chromosome is neither better nor worse than the X chromosome, each one fighting to replicate itself down the generations (alternative book title suggestion: "Chromosomes Gone Wild: The Battle of the Sexes Goes Cellular!")? 4) that the Y chromosome is truly and veritably a "curse," guiding the Vikings, the Genghis Khans of the world, and men in general to rape, pillage, and burn their way through history? 5) that the species -- and the planet, for that matter -- would be better off if men were completely eliminated and women reproduced with each other? 6) that male-female sexual reproduction is inherently a bad thing? 7) that we we are all just puppets of our chromosomes and DNA, which are using us to their own ends? 8) that all these issues are to be looked at objectively and dispassionately as a scientist? 9) alternatively, that these issues should be considered subjectively and emotionally by a human being with a particular set of beliefs regarding civilization? Ouch, my head hurts!
Whatever the answers to the questions posed above, in my opinion "Adam's Curse" is well worth reading as a fascinating and important, if strange and disturbing, book. Bryan Sykes is certainly a serious scientist (professor of genetics at Oxford University), so his findings and musings -- strange and even outrageous as they appear -- can't be so easily dismissed. Sykes has done a great deal of research, no question about it, and he lays that research out here in a readable, direct, and engaging -- if sometimes rambling -- way.
One caveat: I suspect that to judge whether Sykes is on the right track or not, it would help to know a lot more about the latest developments in genetic science than someone like myself. Still, Sykes is a fine storyteller, and one of the rare scientists -- Carl Sagan and Stephen Jay Gould spring to mind - who can actually explain things in a readable way to non-specialists. The bottom line? If you're interested in the dramatic, fascinating "war between the sexes" at its most fundamental, genetic level, then this is a book you ought to consider reading.
Sykes assures us that his figure of 1.3% "non-paternity events" (births of children whose biological and legal fathers are different) is a maximum, but he is forgetting a simple and plausible mechanism that would allow a much higher frequency. In past centuries married women suffered great social pressure to produce children, but what could a fertile woman married to a sterile man do to satisfy her parents-in-law? By far the least risky thing to do, even before anyone knew about Y chromosomes, would be to have a child by a brother-in-law. Such a "non-paternity event" would preserve the appearances, would keep everything within the family, and would be more likely to be tolerated and even approved of by the husband and his family than any other solution.
Much of the detailed information is fascinating, and the book is easy and enjoyable to read. It has some major faults, however, especially in the second half, where much of the discussion is muddled, speculative and at times dishonest. Some scientists avoid statistical arguments, preferring to base their conclusions on experimental results so overwhelmingly clear that statistical analysis is hardly necessary. This can be wasteful, but it is intellectually defensible and is adopted by some entirely respectable scientists. Bryan Sykes wants to have his cake and eat it, however, using statistical calculations when they suit the conclusions that he wants to draw, and dismissing them when they don't; that is not intellectually defensible. Having satisfied himself that the frequency of his own Y chromosome had increased 10000-fold since the 13th century, despite his belief that "the Sykeses were never wealthy or powerful" (forgetting, perhaps, that three Sykes baronetcies, two dating from the 18th century, do not suggest a family on the edge of poverty), he wonders about the reasons for its success. Rejecting, for no clear reason, the common-sense explanation that even without any selection some genes become fixed and others become extinct, he studies school registers in search of evidence that Sykeses have tended to have more sons than daughters, finding that 212 out of 393 Sykes children were boys. He calculates that a proportion of sons as high this was likely to occur "just under 6 percent" just by chance. (The correct answer is about 6.5%, but let that pass.) He neglects to inform his readers, most of whom cannot be expected to be knowledgeable about statistical conventions, that this would have been reported as "not significant" in any serious analysis ever since modern statistical tests were introduced in the 1920s.
Worse is to come, however. Finding a family with 23 girls and 4 boys he estimates the probability of this occurring by chance as 1 in 5000, which he describes as "very long odds indeed", even though he knows perfectly well that the calculation assumes a randomly chosen family, whereas he has carefully selected a specific family in the expectation of an extreme result. What is dishonest about this is that Sykes knows, and occasionally mentions, the reasons why his calculations are illiegitimate, but he hopes his readers will be fooled anyway. Eventually, coming to arguments that supposed evidence for a gene for homosexuality were unfounded, he refers contemptuously to people who think that statistical arguments should be used properly as "the guardians of statistical integrity" and tells us that in his experience they are usually wrong.
Several chapters in the middle of the book set out the ideas of sociobiology, but it is not obvious why these were included, as they add little to the rest of the book, and nothing to the far more expert accounts that can be found elsewhere, in the writings of Richard Dawkins, Mark Ridley, Matt Ridley, and others. At least we are spared, however, the seven chapters of romantic fiction that came close to ruining The Seven Daughters of Eve, and the purple passages dealing with Gaia are mercifully short.
The subtitle of the book promises a "future without men", and the blurb assures us that "men are slowly, but surely, headed for extinction". For most of the book this seems to be little more than advertising hype, and the evidence, when it eventually comes is thin and speculative. It is also confusing and muddled, because although some problems may be specifically human - maintaining the testicles too warm, excessive exposure to mutagens, etc. - the main theme that Sykes develops is of a fight to the death between the man-hating mitochondria and the women-hating Y chromosomes, which, he thinks, will eventually be won by the mitochondria. However, if this fight is going on it must affect not just people but all of the great array of other animals that determine sex in the same way, including virtually all mammals.
30 or 40 years ago popular books about the human species, such as those of Robert Ardrey or Desmond Morris, tended to stress Man the Mighty Hunter, with an obsession that Elaine Morgan rightly ridiculed as the Tarzan school of biological thinking. Fashions change, however, and if one may judge from this book and Steve Jones's recent "Y: the Descent of Men" the current vogue is for books about Man the Pathetic Wimp, with Y chromosomes in bad shape, a "graveyard of rotting genes", and sperms of low and diminishing mobility, unlike those of our cousins the chimpanzees, 100% of whose sperms are "in excellent shape". No doubt this explains the success of chimpanzees in spreading themselves over the entire earth and restricting humans to tiny relics of their original range; but maybe I have missed a key step in the argument somewhere.
What he puts forth - that we should look at this from the view point of the X and Y genes and that they have conlicting agendas (and murderous intent against each other)- at first sounded ridiculous but his theories on the attempts and abilities of certain mitochondrial genes to abort or effeminate male conceptions began to sound really interesting. When he applies the outlook to male behavior in general it seems crystal. I have seen a lot of reviewers really slam this book for its views. While I do not have the education to respond to the probability of whether he is correct or not, I am interested in what becomes of his theories.