Fashion Sale Hier klicken Jetzt informieren reduziertemalbuecher Cloud Drive Photos Erste Wahl Learn More sommer2016 designshop Hier klicken Fire Shop Kindle PrimeMusic Summer Sale 16

0 von 1 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen The Arrow of Cultural Evolution, 19. Juni 2000
Rezension bezieht sich auf: Nonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny (Gebundene Ausgabe)
Back in 1794 the Enlightenment philosphe Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet wrote his Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind--the boldest of the eighteenth-century declarations that humanity had and was destined to see Progress with a capital P. Condorcet was a powerful and convincing advocate--Malthus wrote his Essay on Population explicitly against Condorcet. But that was the high water mark of belief in Progress. By and large the past two centuries have seen the reaction, and confidence in human Progress--technological, political, humanistic, and moral--fell out of intellectual favor.
Now comes Robert Wright, previously author of Three Scientists and Their Gods and The Moral Animal, with an excellent book accompanied by an enthusiastic blurb by William McNeill. Wright's purpose to set out the gospel of progress anew, this time using the language of game theory as his principal mode of rhetoric. At its most basic level Wright's point is that interactions are positive-sum: there are gains from cooperation. Thus human cultural evolution has an arrow and a direction: toward greater complexity, toward higher civilization.
The direction arises at two levels. First, individual humans seek out things that increase their own powers and capabilities. Cooperation tends to do this, so people find ways to cooperate. But the most important form of cooperation is one that is almost impossible to stop: the simple sharing of knowledge. Two heads are better than one. The denser the population (and the better the means of communication) the more ideas will be generated, the larger the number of ideas that turn out to be useful, and the faster will be progress. People are, Wright argues--in my view correctly---naturally acquisitive in that they want useful things, and will eagerly copy new technologies they hear about. Thus Wright sees inventions such as agriculture as inevitable--not as a lucky accident.
Second, at the level of human societies, the societies that are more powerful--have better technologies, more effective social arrangements, greater population densities, and so forth--either swamp their neighbors or force their neighbors to copy them in order to maintain their autonomy. In Eurasia, where contact was constant from an early age--from the year 200 on one could travel from Gibralter to the mouth of China's Yangtze River and cross only three borders--a good innovation at one end would diffuse all the way to the other in a matter of centuries. He believes that the wide spread of religion in agricultural civilizations proves that its productivity-boosting and division of labor-enhancing effects outweigh its exploitative side: those societies that did not have temples and priests did not flourish.
Wright dismisses gloomy talk of barbarian invasions and the fall of empires by asserting that one goes from furs-and-swords to linen-and-pens in three generations: "The Romans weren't exactly hailed by the Greeks as cultural equals when they happened on the scene.... Yet they were massively infiltrated by classical Greek memes, which they then spread across the wider world. In Horace's phrase, 'The Greeks, captive, took the victors captive'. And, anyway, who were the Greeks to look down on intrusive barbarians?... The early Greeks had a title of honor, ptoliporthos, that meant 'sacker of cities'.... But whether these 'barbarians' sack cities, or hover on the periphery and trade... or ally with them in war or ally against them, one outcome is nearly certain: win, lose, or draw, the 'barbarians' become vehicles for advanced memes...." For what truly matters are the basic technologies of agriculture and craft, not the products of high civilizations. And even when you do have significant regression--in the post-Mycenean Dark Age, in the post-Roman Dark Age, or in the wake of the Mongols--Wright reminds us that "the world makes backup copies."
Wright also dismisses gloomy talk of the stagnation of Ming and Qing China, the fall of the Mughal Empire, and the technological and organizational stasis of the Ottoman Empire by arguing that the key unit is not Europe vs. Asia but is instead Eurasia. Sooner or later, Wright argues, some part of Eurasia--it did not have to be Europe--would have hit up on a superior social and technological recipe to that of the mid second millennium empires, and when it did the rest would have copied it. Wright is of the school that holds that China almost broke through to modernity, writing of how paper and woodblock printing were used to distribute useful texts--Pictures and Poems on Husbandry and Weaving, Mathematics for Daily Use, and the Treatise on Citrus Fruit. The recipe that ultimately proved successful--what Wright calls the economic logic of freedom--was stopped in many places: "indeed, on balance, in the centuries after the printing press was invented, European governments grew more despotic." But it only had to succeed once. And given sufficient cultural variation, sooner or later a breakthrough was inevitable.
But even if you buy all of Wright's argument that forms of increasing returns--non-zero-sum-ness, as Wright calls it--impart an arrow of increasing complexity and division of labor to human social, cultural, and economic evolution, this does not necessarily amount to Progress--at least not to anything we would see as progress in human morality or human happiness. For why should organizational complexity be Progress? As Wright puts it: " would be hard to argue that there was net moral gain between the hunter-gatherer and ancient-state phases of cultural evolution. The Egyptians had slaves--which virtually no known hunter-gatherer societies had--and their soldiers returned from wars of conquest proudly brandishing the severed penises of their slain foes."
So in the end Wright is forced to play a game of three-card monte to reach conclusions that support his belief in Progress. The card labeled "complexity" must be switched for the card labeled "Progress" without our noticing. In the industrial core, at the end of the twentieth century, we are inclined to tolerate this switch--to say that it is obvious that a highly complicated and productive civilization will have widely-distributed individual wealth, lots of individual freedom, and soft forms of rule, and that social complexity is civilization. But back in the middle of the twentieth century this switch could not have been accomplished at all: "complexity yes," people would have said, "but progress no." And who knows how things will look in a hundred more years?
Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet (1743- 1794), was an aristocrat, a mathematician, an official of the Academy of Sciences, and was a friend of Voltaire (1694-1778). He strongly supported the revolution of 1789 as an example of human progress. But the Committee of Public Safety turned on him: he was arrested, and died in prison before he could be executed.
Helfen Sie anderen Kunden bei der Suche nach den hilfreichsten Rezensionen 
War diese Rezension für Sie hilfreich? Ja Nein

Schreiben Sie als erste Person zu dieser Rezension einen Kommentar.

[Kommentar hinzufügen]
Kommentar posten
Verwenden Sie zum Einfügen eines Produktlinks dieses Format: [[ASIN:ASIN Produkt-Name]] (Was ist das?)
Amazon wird diesen Namen mit allen Ihren Beiträgen, einschließlich Rezensionen und Diskussion-Postings, anzeigen. (Weitere Informationen)
Dieses Abzeichen wird Ihnen zugeordnet und erscheint zusammen mit Ihrem Namen.
There was an error. Please try again.
">Hier finden Sie die kompletten Richtlinien.

Offizieller Kommentar

Als Vertreter dieses Produkt können Sie einen offiziellen Kommentar zu dieser Rezension veröffentlichen. Er wird unmittelbar unterhalb der Rezension angezeigt, wo immer diese angezeigt wird.   Weitere Informationen
Der folgende Name und das Abzeichen werden mit diesem Kommentar angezeigt:
Nach dem Anklicken der Schaltfläche "Übermitteln" werden Sie aufgefordert, Ihren öffentlichen Namen zu erstellen, der mit allen Ihren Beiträgen angezeigt wird.

Ist dies Ihr Produkt?

Wenn Sie der Autor, Künstler, Hersteller oder ein offizieller Vertreter dieses Produktes sind, können Sie einen offiziellen Kommentar zu dieser Rezension veröffentlichen. Er wird unmittelbar unterhalb der Rezension angezeigt, wo immer diese angezeigt wird.  Weitere Informationen
Ansonsten können Sie immer noch einen regulären Kommentar zu dieser Rezension veröffentlichen.

Ist dies Ihr Produkt?

Wenn Sie der Autor, Künstler, Hersteller oder ein offizieller Vertreter dieses Produktes sind, können Sie einen offiziellen Kommentar zu dieser Rezension veröffentlichen. Er wird unmittelbar unterhalb der Rezension angezeigt, wo immer diese angezeigt wird.   Weitere Informationen
Timeout des Systems

Wir waren konnten nicht überprüfen, ob Sie ein Repräsentant des Produkts sind. Bitte versuchen Sie es später erneut, oder versuchen Sie es jetzt erneut. Ansonsten können Sie einen regulären Kommentar veröffentlichen.

Da Sie zuvor einen offiziellen Kommentar veröffentlicht haben, wird dieser Kommentar im nachstehenden Kommentarbereich angezeigt. Sie haben auch die Möglichkeit, Ihren offiziellen Kommentar zu bearbeiten.   Weitere Informationen
Die maximale Anzahl offizieller Kommentare wurde veröffentlicht. Dieser Kommentar wird im nachstehenden Kommentarbereich angezeigt.   Weitere Informationen
Eingabe des Log-ins



Rezensentin / Rezensent

Ort: Berkeley, CA USA

Top-Rezensenten Rang: 5.665.932