17 von 17 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen Ein wichtiges Buch
Es gibt Bücher, die krempeln einem das Denken um, und hinterher fragt man sich, wieso einem das nicht schon immer so klar war, so selbstverständlich scheint es nach der Lektüre. In dieser Reihe steht Dawkins mit The Selfish Gene, oder White mit The Moral Animal. Und Kahnemann mit diesem Bestseller, in dem allerdings noch eine Menge Überraschungen zu...
Vor 16 Monaten von Manfred Mahnig veröffentlicht
3 von 4 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
3.0 von 5 Sternen Das ist mir eigentlich viel zu wenig
Ja, es werden interessante Experimente geschildert, der Forschungsansatz war mir völlig neu und teilweise sind die Ergebnisse wirklich überraschend. Aber - ich will jetzt nicht sagen, es ist ein dummes Buch - ein kluges Buch ist das meines Erachtens auch nicht. Wie ich es verstanden habe, geht Kahnemann mit einer komplett vorgefertigten Meinung hinein und kommt...
Vor 3 Monaten von Jan Kovarik veröffentlicht
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17 von 17 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen Ein wichtiges Buch,
Rezension bezieht sich auf: Thinking, Fast and Slow (Kindle Edition)
Es gibt Bücher, die krempeln einem das Denken um, und hinterher fragt man sich, wieso einem das nicht schon immer so klar war, so selbstverständlich scheint es nach der Lektüre. In dieser Reihe steht Dawkins mit The Selfish Gene, oder White mit The Moral Animal. Und Kahnemann mit diesem Bestseller, in dem allerdings noch eine Menge Überraschungen zu erlesen und zu erleben sind (zahlreiche Selbstversuche sind im Text verstreut). Die größte davon ist sicher nicht nur für mich, dass auch die Experten für Statistik in die selben Fallen tappen wie unsereiner, wenn sie spontan und ohne zu rechnen eine Wette annehmen sollen. Oder Finanzmärkte vorhersagen.
Man würde sich nach der Lektüre wünschen, dass alle, die irgendwo Verantwortung übernehmen sollen, intensiv geschult werden in den Lehren, die aus diesem Buch gezogen werden können.
56 von 63 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen Ein Schulgeheimnis des kognitiven Apparates,
Rezension bezieht sich auf: Thinking, Fast and Slow (Gebundene Ausgabe)
Der 1934 in Tel Aviv geborene Daniel Kahneman, heute emeritierter Professor verschiedener US-amerikanischer Universitäten und Träger des Wirtschafts-Nobelpreises von 2002, hat ein allgemein verständliches Buch vorgelegt, um Zugang zu Fragen seines lebenslangen wissenschaftlichen Forschens zu ermöglichen. Das wäre an sich nichts, was Spannung erzeugen müsste, handelte es sich nicht um Fragestellungen, die uns alle, täglich, stündlich, in jedem Augenblick beträfen. In seinem Buch Thinking, Fast and Slow, gibt Kahneman einen auch aus didaktischer Sicht gelungenen Einblick in die Forschung über das Wie und Warum menschlicher Entscheidungen.
In insgesamt fünf Kapiteln zeichnet er das Terrain. Er beginnt mit den zwei stereotypen Systemen der menschlichen Erkenntnis, dem emotional und dem rational gesteuerten. In einigen Fallbeispielen zeigt Kahneman auf, wie das menschliche Hirn bei welchen Reizen operiert und warum wir schneller sind, wenn die emotionalen und langsamer, wenn die rationalen Programme laufen. Die Reinform des Gebrauchs des kognitiven Apparates existiert nie, immer mischen sich die beiden Muster der Welterklärung, die Steuerung liegt aber in einer Hand. Sehr gelungen ist die Präsentation der beiden Systeme. Um uns zu System I, der Emotionalität zu führen, benutzt Kahneman das Bild eines gestressten Frauengesichts und für System II, die Rationalität, präsentiert er dem Leser den Anblick einer mathematischen Formel.
Es folgt ein Kapitel über heuristische Systeme, in dem es um Anker, die Überlegenheit der Kausalität in der statistischen Welt und die Erotik schlichter Deduktionen geht. Das Kapitel über die Selbstüberschätzung im kognitiven Prozess ist nahezu eine Fortsetzung der Kritischen Theorie in Bezug auf die Entstehung von Ideologie und die Ausführungen über die Wahlmöglichkeiten zwischen Res publica und Ego ist eine ebenso gelungene wie gesellschaftskritische Reflexion. Das letzte Kapitel über die beiden Selbst individualisiert noch einmal die Optionen und konjugiert sie in ihrer ganzen gesellschaftlichen Tragweite. Dabei geht es nicht nur um die Frage, welchen kognitiven Systems ich mich bediene, sondern auch, ob ich mich einer gesellschaftlich-sozialen oder individuell-hedonistischen Logik bediene.
Das Spannende an Daniel Kahnemans Buch ist das, was sich hinter dem vordergründigen, seine wissenschaftlichen Studien Beschreibenden verbirgt. Dabei geht es um Welterklärung wie Gesellschaftskritik gleichermaßen. Der Leser erfährt nicht nur, welchen instrumentellen Hintergrund konkrete Entscheidungen haben, sondern auch, welche Motivlage das Ergebnis der Entscheidung in seiner Qualität prädestiniert. Und Kahneman bleibt da nicht in der praktischen Folgenlosigkeit der Abstraktion. Das materielle Leitmotiv kognitiver Prozesse im Kapitalismus beraubt, so der einstige Professor aus Berkeley, das Individuum seiner Fähigkeit, in Kreativität und Gestaltung den Zustand des Glücks zu finden. Chapeau! Chapeau!
13 von 14 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen Fast: Good Reading - Slow: Interesting and Enjoyable, some parts are lengthy,
Scientific writing needs not to be boring. This book is the proof. It is well written, interesting and enjoyable to read. Some parts are too lengthy, e.g. the writer's praise of the development of this book. Readers, however, are advised: the reading of this book does change your way of thinking. Advice for readers of the German translation: read the English original!
5 von 5 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
4.0 von 5 Sternen Ein Buch mit aha-Effekt,
Trotz des komplexen und umfangreichen Themas ist das Buch auch für Laien gut verständlich und einfach zu lesen (auch auf Englisch).
Gerade durch die praktischen Beispiele werden die verschiedenen Aspekte des System 1 und System 2 (sowie auch den anderen Konzepten) verständlich dargestellt und haben bei mir des Öfteren zu einem Aha-Erlebnis geführt.
Vor allem der erste Teil des Buches zu System 1+2 ist sehr aufschlussreich und hochinteressant.
Leider verflachte bei mir die Euphorie im zweiten Teil des Buches durch vielfältiges Wiederholen und nochmal-Erläuterns bereits beschriebenen Verhaltens. Dafür ein Stern Abzug.
In Summe ein Buch das jeder gelesen haben sollte, der wissen will, warum wir (so viele) falsche Entscheidungen treffen und von was wir uns beeinflussen lassen.
2 von 2 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen Everyday Thinking,
It's not that often that a book falls into your hands which makes you stop and think, reassess, consider and smile in recognition, and most certainly not a book which could be considered a textbook rather than a view of life as we see it in our day-to-day lives. Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman is that famous exception which attempts to prove the rule that not all is as it seems. It is a textbook which appeals to the masses, written in a free-flowing and easy style which appeals, which draws the reader into ever complex ideas, into a deep spiral of realization that our lives and thoughts, our actions and reactions are not quite as simple as we may wish to believe.
We are subjected to a vast array of situations each and every minute of the day, whether we realize it or not, which require some form of decision. Some are seemingly automatic, some require more thought. Many can change the way our life goes from one moment to the next, can alter our opinion, can bring drastic financial, emotional or other major changes depending on the information we have, the information we consider in forming our judgement. Let me give you a current example:
A young gay woman posts a service receipt to the Internet which shows a refusal to give a tip because the customer does not agree with her way of life.
Many people will have immediately formed an opinion on what has happened simply from this one-sided statement, this public action. Reading through Kahneman's book, however, we get to see that our opinion is based on a lack of information, on information which has also be augmented by recent events, memories of similar actions, personal feelings. We see that our opinion is formed and accept it as such without necessarily knowing why we came to this decision, or even how. We also learn that our decision, since we have no other information than that which is contained in one statement, could well be false, formed through misinformation or a lack of appropriate information.
Decision making based on information received is a far more complex act than many appreciate. For most it appears to be a very easy matter: we read what is presented to us and base our final reply, our actions and reactions upon what we already know coupled with what we have been given. In fact, as Kahneman points out, there are several levels involved in good decision-making, and we do not always take advantage of all the possibilities. We take, automatically, the easy way out. Sometimes we do not even address the problem at hand, but seek out a simpler, related problem which can be answered quickly, without too much thought. We do not delve into the depths of a problem, but take it at face value.
With a wealth of examples, Kahneman takes the reader through many different scenarios covering how we think, how we make decisions, what we use to arrive at our decision and how this process can fool us. He does it, however, in a manner which is easy to understand, taking us gradually one level after the other towards the more complex problems of risk and reward. Each stage is covered with plain examples, then completed with more information, and a solid explanation of how we arrived at our first decision, how further information, even a slightly different wording of a problem, might have changed the manner in which we think, the result of our thoughts.
Let me return to my example (above). The information we have, at first glance, is that a young gay woman has been refused a tip despite her service as a waitress. There is nothing to suggest that the level of service received by the customer was bad, their refusal to tip is based exclusively on the fact that she is gay, and they do not agree with her lifestyle. If the service was not bad, we reason, then there must be another excuse for not tipping: this is given to us. We automatically imagine a very conservative family, straight-laced, set in their ways, not in tune with modern society and the acceptance of different lifestyles, different personalities, different sexual orientation. We recall that there have been many examples in recent months of people refusing tips to waitresses for the most obscure and irrational reasons. Coupled with this, we remember that many waitresses - and other customers - have picked up the bills for others who they felt either needed financial assistance, or who had, through service to their country and fellow citizens, earned it in one form of another.
This background knowledge influences our decision. We feel offended that anyone could refuse a tip for someone doing their job properly simply because of who they are. Some will feel the need to comment on the family involved, even though they know neither the waitress nor the other people. Some will feel the need to compensate the waitress, who has done nothing wrong. With his clear examples, Kahneman shows us that this is not unusual. We have reacted to the information presented, coupled with what we already know from elsewhere, and come to a decision. We take some form of action, even though we have very little information to go on. Our reaction requires very little thought, it is, in effect, a very shallow reaction and absolutely normal.
What when we receive further information, though, could this change our attitude? Two more pieces of news may have reached us after we had initially reacted:
The waitress is prone to excessive lying.
The family concerned publish another copy of the same receipt without a handwritten comment, but with a tip.
Our available information has been greatly enhanced, and our decision about the whole course of events changes drastically. There is more than a shadow of a doubt cast upon the original story. Our thought processes go beyond the shallow level with this new information and, in all probability, our opinion of the waitress and the family she served changes: we side with the family.
Decision making is an everyday part of our lives, even for the smallest things. It is automatic, in most cases, and requires little apparent thought, even though our thought processes must be active. Decision making, so clear-cut and easy, is far more complicated than we had first imagined, taking more information - present, past, learned, heard-of - into account in a fraction of a second. In his highly accessible work, Kahneman takes us, one step at a time, through the thought processes involved across several different levels and shows us how we work, where, through a lack of information or just pure laziness (on the part of the mind) we might be failing ourselves, making errors which could haunt us for years to come. He brings complex psychological thought across in a factual and fascinating manner, and makes us, the reader, consider what we are doing, how we made a decision, and whether it was, after all, the right one.
2 von 2 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
4.0 von 5 Sternen A Brief Summary and Review,
*A full executive summary of this book is available at newbooksinbrief dot com.
The adage ‘you are what you eat’ is no doubt literally true, but when it comes to getting at the heart of what we are it is certainly more accurate to say ‘you are what you think’; for our identity emerges out of the life of the mind, and our decisions and actions (including what we eat) is determined by our thoughts. An exploration of how we think therefore cuts to the core of what we are, and offers a clear path to gaining a better understanding of ourselves and why we behave as we do. In addition, while many of us are fairly happy with how our mind works, few of us would say that we could not afford to improve here at least in some respects; and therefore, an exploration of how we think also promises to point the way towards fruitful self-improvement (which stands to help us both in our personal and professional lives). While thinking about thinking was traditionally a speculative practice (embarked upon by philosophers and economists) it has recently received a more empirical treatment through the disciplines of psychology and neuroscience. It is from the latter angle that the Nobel Prize winning psychologist Daniel Kahneman approaches the subject in his new book 'Thinking, Fast and Slow'.
As the title would suggest, Kahneman breaks down thinking into 2 modes or systems. Slow thinking is the system that we normally think of as thought in the strictest sense. It is deliberate and conscious, and we naturally feel as though we are in control of it (Kahneman refers to it as system 2). System 2 is in play when we actively consider what we want to have for dinner tonight, or when we choose what stocks to buy, or when we perform a mathematical calculation. System 1, by contrast, is automatic and unconscious, and hums along continuously in the background. It constantly surveys the environment, and processes the incoming stimuli with razor speed.
System 1 is informed by natural drives and instincts but is also capable of learning, which it does by way of association (that is, connecting up novel stimuli with known stimuli according to shared characteristics, contiguity in time and place, or causality). The system is designed to give us an impression of our environment as quickly as possible, thus allowing us to respond to it immediately, which is especially important in times of danger. In order to do so, system 1 relies on general rules and guidelines (called heuristics). These heuristics are primarily geared to help us in the moment and are tilted towards protecting us from danger, and in this respect they are mostly very useful. Still, mistakes can be made, and the system was specifically designed to work in the environment in which we evolved, which is quite different from our current one, so this adds to its errors.
Over and above this, the impressions that system 1 forms are also fed up to system 2. Indeed, whenever system 1 senses something out of the ordinary or dangerous, system 2 is automatically mobilized to help out with the situation. And even when system 2 is not mobilized specifically out of danger, it is constantly being fed suggestions by system 1. Now, while the impressions of system 1 are fairly effective in protecting us from moment to moment, they are much less effective in long-term planning; and therefore, they are much more problematic here. Of course, system 2 is capable of overriding the impressions of system 1, and of avoiding the errors. However, as Kahneman points out, system 2 is often completely unaware that it is being influenced (and misled) by system 1; and therefore, is not naturally well-equipped to catch the errors. Much of the book is spent exploring the activities and biases of system 1, in order to make us more aware of how this system works and how it influences (and often misleads) system 2.
This is only half the battle, though, for while system 2 may be naturally poorly equipped to catch the errors of system 1, it is also often poorly equipped to correct these errors. Indeed, Kahneman argues that system 2 is simply not a paragon of rationality (as is often assumed in economics), and could stand to use a good deal of help in this regard. The most glaring deficiency of system 2, according to Kahneman, is that it is naturally very poor with probabilities and statistics. Fortunately, system 2 can be trained to improve here, and this is another major concern of the book.
Kahneman does a very good job of breaking down the workings of the mind, and presenting his findings in a very readable way. My only objection to the book is that the arguments are sometimes drawn out much more than needed, and there is a fair bit of repetition. A full executive summary of the book is available at newbooksinbrief dot com; a podcast discussion of the book will be available shortly thereafter.
2 von 2 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen compulsory reading to anyone on the planet,
I think this is a great book with much insight about a large number of errors in our daily decision making. The book is easy to read, broken up in very short sections that can each be read in 30 mins or less, thus making it a great commute book. It is however not trivial take in. The truth about the field, and Kahneman himself recognizes it, is that it is still in its infancy. Although very empirical (lots of experiments are described which make the arguments much more convincing than other psychology books based only on small case studies and "expert opinions") it remains too descriptive for my taste thus with all the author's efforts the book somewhat lacks structure. This is not his fault the consolidation required to reveal the structure, and perhaps some predictive consequences, usually comes after much more generations of researchers banging their heads for answers and much more empirical evidence.
Some reviewers mention that it is long winded but I think that depends on the reader. I think kahneman did this partly because repetition is useful to remember things when not enough structure is present and partly because things are much more subtle than people are used to think. On this point I agree with the author that for this very social fenomena and, because people too often think they already know what is being talked about, words can often be false friends and developing a vocabulary is a tenuous albeit absolutely necessary endeavor. (You'll understand when you read the book)
(a potatoe for your troubles)
19 von 24 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen How Decisions Vary from "Rational" Models and How to Avoid Decision Mistakes,
"And He shall not judge by the sight of His eyes,
Nor decide by the hearing of His ears;
But with righteousness He shall judge the poor,
And decide with equity for the meek of the earth;
He shall strike the earth with the rod of His mouth,
And with the breath of His lips He shall slay the wicked." -- Isaiah 11:3-4 (NKJV)
Economists have long favored describing people according to a standard of highly rational, financially maximizing thought. Those with a little more imagination realized that money isn't everything and allowed for personal preferences to play a role in assigning value. Behavioral psychologists, such as Professor Kahneman, have been poking big holes in the economic models in recent decades so that the rational economic person perspective increasingly looks more like tattered cheesecloth than anything you would want to wear in public.
In Thinking, Fast and Slow, Professor Kahneman presents the results of many decision-making experiments to shed light on how decisions are typically made, what influences those decisions, and how the decisions could be improved. If you haven't read about these experiments, I'm sure you'll be fascinated. Most are presented in a way that allows you to test your own mental processes and to see how your reactions compare to what most people do. That adds to the fun.
Some of the more interesting findings are that we are more heavily affected by peak experiences, memories of how things ended, and whether we "won" or "lost" than we are by the economics or hedonic pleasure of something. Further, we're likely to be so overly optimistic that we won't see the cliff until we are launched head over heels over it.
I'm sure that somewhere in this book you'll find a chapter or two that will highlight something that bothers you about your own decision making, and you'll come away with some good ideas for how to do better next time.
The book's main drawback is that Professor Kahneman is perhaps a little more offended by peoples' inability to appreciate statistics and to do math in the right context than he might be. That section was a bit too long and precious.
I especially enjoyed the conclusions where a lot of standard assumptions about how to accomplish things are politely, but firmly, challenged.
Bravo, Professor Kahneman!
11 von 14 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen Virtually perfect,
Kahneman presents in this fascinating book what current cutting edge psychology has to say about how humans form judgements and make decisions. The focus is on the limitations of intuitive thinking and how they can be overcome by activating the slow and controlled thinking the human mind is also capable of.
The author is one of the world's leading psychologists and his writing is always understandable without compromising scientific accuracy. His book might be the best available on the subject.
1 von 1 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen da kann die Logik nicht mithalten,
Absolut bestes Buch zum Thema Lenkung der Logik durch das Unterbewusste. In den ersten Kapiteln muss man sich in die Materie etwas einlesen. Aber die vielen Beispiele helfen sehr gut, das Thema komplett zu erfassen. Es hat mich sehr gewundert, zu erfahren, wieviel man von dem Unterbewusstsein (das schnelle Denken) beeinflusst wird, obwohl man denkt, die Entscheidungen nur mit der Logik gefällt zu haben. Das Buch regt einen zum Nachdenken an und hilft, in wichtigen und/oder kritischen Situationen die Entscheidungen gegeneinander besser zu werten. Auch für Lehrkräfte ein sehr nützliches Buch, um die Benotungen mehr auf den Prüfstand zu stellen.
Nach der Lektüre ist es für mich kein Wunder, dass er einen Preis für seine Arbeit erhielt!
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Thinking, Fast and Slow von Daniel Kahneman