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The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts (Englisch) Taschenbuch – 11. Juni 2002


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The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts + David and Solomon: In Search of the Bible's Sacred Kings and the Roots of the Western Tradition: In Search of the Bible's Sacred Kings and the Roots of Western Civilization
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Produktinformation

  • Taschenbuch: 400 Seiten
  • Verlag: Free Press; Auflage: Reprint (11. Juni 2002)
  • Sprache: Englisch
  • ISBN-10: 0684869136
  • ISBN-13: 978-0684869131
  • Größe und/oder Gewicht: 14 x 2,8 x 21,4 cm
  • Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: 5.0 von 5 Sternen  Alle Rezensionen anzeigen (2 Kundenrezensionen)
  • Amazon Bestseller-Rang: Nr. 69.471 in Fremdsprachige Bücher (Siehe Top 100 in Fremdsprachige Bücher)
  • Komplettes Inhaltsverzeichnis ansehen

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The Bible Unearthed is a balanced, thoughtful, bold reconsideration of the historical period that produced the Hebrew Bible. The headline news in this book is easy to pick out: there is no evidence for the existence of Abraham, or any of the Patriarchs; ditto for Moses and the Exodus; and the same goes for the whole period of Judges and the united monarchy of David and Solomon. In fact, the authors argue that it is impossible to say much of anything about ancient Israel until the seventh century B.C., around the time of the reign of King Josiah. In that period, "the narrative of the Bible was uniquely suited to further the religious reform and territorial ambitions of Judah." Yet the authors deny that their arguments should be construed as compromising the Bible's power. Only in the 18th century--"when the Hebrew Bible began to be dissected and studied in isolation from its powerful function in community life"--did readers begin to view the Bible as a source of empirically verifiable history. For most of its life, the Bible has been what Finkelstein and Silberman reveal it once more to be: an eloquent expression of "the deeply rooted sense of shared origins, experiences, and destiny that every human community needs in order to survive," written in such a way as to encompass "the men, women, and children, the rich, the poor, and the destitute of an entire community." --Michael Joseph Gross -- Dieser Text bezieht sich auf eine vergriffene oder nicht verfügbare Ausgabe dieses Titels.

Pressestimmen

Baruch Halpern author of The First Historians: The Hebrew Bible and History The boldest and most exhilarating synthesis of the Bible and archaeology in fifty years.

John Shelby Spong author of Here I Stand: My Struggle for a Christianity of Integrity, Love, and Equality A bold and provocative book, well researched, well written, and powerfully argued. It challenges many of the assumptions developed by the literal religious minds of the ages, opening traditional possibilities to new conclusions.

Jonathan Kirsch Los Angeles Times A brutally honest assessment of what archaeology can and cannot tell us about the historical accuracy of the Bible...presented with both authority and panache.

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8 von 9 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich Von timediver® HALL OF FAME REZENSENTTOP 500 REZENSENT am 2. Oktober 2006
Format: Taschenbuch
Zahlreiche (sich widersprechende) Doppel- und manchmal Dreierversionen derselben Ereignisse in den Berichten über die Wanderung der Erzväter, dem Auszug aus Ägypten und der Gesetzgebung lassen unterschiedliche Quellen erkennen, die zu verschiedenen Zeiten aus bestimmten Gründen zusammengefügt oder redaktionell überarbeitet wurden. Die alttestamentarischen Geschichten sind demnach als nationale Mythen einer pan-israelitischen Idee zu betrachten.....

Neben der historischen Verschwommenheit (13. Jahrhundert v. Chr.) des "Auszuges aus Ägypten" gibt es keine archäologischen Beweise dafür, dass zu dieser Zeit eine große Volksgruppe den Sinai durchzogen hat. Die Auseinandersetzung zwischen Moses und dem Pharao ist vielmehr eine Spiegelung der historischen Konfrontation zwischen dem judäischen König Josia (639-609 v. Chr.) und Pharao Necho. Ebenso gab es keine gewaltsame Einnahme Kanaans. Jericho Mauern haben auch nicht einstürzen können, da die kanaanitischen Städte keine Stadtmauern besaßen.. Die meisten Menschen, die man als frühe Israeliten bezeichnen kann, waren vielmehr Einheimische, die sich um 1200 v. Chr. infolge eines dramatischen sozialen Wandels weitab der kanaanitischen Städte im westjordanischen Bergland niederließen und zweihundertfünfzig Dörfer gründeten. Aus dieser Zeit stammt der älteste kultische Ritus, kein Schweinfleisch zu essen. Archäologische Befunde deuten darauf hin, dass Jerusalem zur Zeit der "Könige" David und Salomon (ca. 1005 - 931 v. Chr.) nicht größer als ein kleines Bergdorf gewesen ist. Beide waren lediglich Stammesoberhäupter mit einer ziemlich kleinen und lokal beschränkten Verwaltung.
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Der Archäologe Israel Finkelstein und der Historiker Neil Asher Silberman, zwei weltbekannte Wissenschaftler, waren in der Lage innerhalb eines internationalen Forschungsprojektes den Stellenwert der Bibel als mythisches und national-episches Sammelwerk zu identifizieren und zu dokumentieren. Die wertvollen Resultate ihres Forschungsprojektes haben sie in diesem Werk, das bereits als Klassiker gilt, mit großem Verständnis und Einfühlungsvermögen der Weltöffentlichkeit zugänglich gemacht. Das Forschungsteam konnte eindeutig feststellen, daß die Übermittlung konkreter historischer Fakten kein Anliegen der Bibelautoren war. Im 7. Jahrhundert AC fand dort unter der Aufsicht von König Josias eine politisch motivierte Kultur- und Religionsreform statt und während dieser Zeit wurde die Bibel zusammengestellt wobei alle anderen Glaubensformen die in Juda bisher ein tolerantes Klima vorfanden nicht mehr willkommen waren und Priester und Anhänger einer Lynchjustiz ausgesetzt und ermordet wurden. Das alles geschah nach der Vereinnahmung des Königtums Israel in das assyrische Großreich wobei viele Flüchtlinge in das kleine Königtum Juda strömten. Es war dies eine Zeit großer politischer Ungewissheit. Während dieser Zwischenperiode wurde die Bibel zusammengestellt. Dieses Vorhaben wurde von rein nationalplitischen Impulsen diktiert. Es galt ein religiös-nationales Gedankengebäude zu schaffen das dann in eine einheitliche schriftlich-sprachliche Form gefaßt wurde. Dieses Werk sollte die Gedanken- und Vorstellungswelt der verschiedenstämmigen Hebräern mit ihren verschiedenen Stammesmythen und Religionsformen vereinen und auf einen einzigen Nenner bringen.Lesen Sie weiter... ›
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389 von 422 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
Scholarly and Accessible 12. März 2001
Von Mark Wylie - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Gebundene Ausgabe
In "The Bible Unearthed," Israel Finkelstein and Neil Silberman display a rare talent among scholars--the ability to make specialized research accessible to a general audience. In this book the authors reveal how recent archaeological research forces us to reconsider the historical account woven into the Hebrew Bible. Among the conclusions they draw are:
1) The tales of patriarchs such as Abraham are largely legends composed long after the time in which they supposedly took place. This is seen in anachronisms such as the use of camels, not domesticated in the Near East until nearly 1000 years after Abraham's time, in many of the stories.
2) There is good reason to believe that the Exodus never happened. Had migrants to the number of even a small fraction of the 600,000 claimed in the Bible truly sojourned in the Sinai Peninsula for 40 years, archaeological evidence of their passage would be abundant. In fact, there are no traces of any signifant group living in the Sinai at the supposed time of the Exodus.
3) The Israelite "conquest" of Canaan, such as there was, was far from the military invasion of the books of Joshua and Judges. Many of the cities described as being conquered and destroyed did not even exist at the time, while those that did were small, unfortified villages, with no walls to be brought down, by blowing trumpets or otherwise.
4) While there is evidence that a historical David existed, and founded some sort of ruling dynasty known by his name, there is good reason to believe that he did not rule over the powerful united monarchy described in II Samuel. One reason for doubt: Jerusalem, portrayed as the great capital of a prosperous nation, was during the time of David little more than a village.
5) Neither Israel nor Judah emerged as organized kingdoms until significantly after the supposed period of the united monarchy. Israel does not appear as a recognizable kingdom until the time of the Omrides of the 9th century BCE, while Judah does not appear as such until the late 8th century BCE, at the time of kings Ahaz and Hezekiah.
Along with their revision of the biblical account of history, Finkelstein and Silberman attempt to explain the origins of the Hebrew Bible, suggesting that the composition of much of the Bible can be tied to the religious agenda of King Josiah of Judah during the late 7th century BCE. While the origins of the Bible will never be known with certainty--there simply isn't enough evidence--Finkelstein and Silberman definitely provide a plausible interpretation.
The authors, as I noted above, do a superb job of making their work understandable to non-specialists; since even college history majors often don't study the ancient Near East, they take care to include sufficient background information for the reader to understand the context of their account. Anyone with an interest in the subject will find "The Bible Unearthed" to be fascinating reading. And anyone who thinks the Bible is an accurate history book should definitely read it.
246 von 267 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
Excellent Scholarship 9. Januar 2001
Von Deborah Appler - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Gebundene Ausgabe
I just finished The Bible Unearthed and I have one overall word to say about it: EXCELLENT! First of all, the authors provide a complete and easy to read explanation of ALL of the "hot" issues currently debated in the field of archaeology and biblical studies. Should the reader not find full agreement with the authors' final conclusions, he or she will have the data available to express this disagreement, especially since the authors place their arguments in the context of what is believed by both majority and minority scholarly opinions. They provide an excellent summary of the opposing arguments; summaries that are fair and complete. Too often people are quick to dismiss Finkelstein as a "biblical minimalist" because these readers are often misinformed or have misread Finkelstein's work. In "The Bible Unearthed," Finkelstein and Silberman are clear to disassociate themselves from the biblical "minimalists" while affiming the questions that they raise, questions that even the most "maximalist" scholar must honestly deal with in light of the paucity of archaeological evidence associated with the time of the ancestors through the rise of the Omride dynasty in 9th century Israel. One of the major questions plaguing the field of biblical studies is the one concerning David and Solomon. Do they really exist? Finkelstein and Silberman unequivocally state that both David and Solomon are historical beings. The magnitude of their kingdom, however, is the issue at hand. Based on the archaeological evidence, the authors suggest that the biblical account of these kings is a mixture of both fact and some embellishment by later authors, most likely writing during King Josiah's reign in 7th century Judah. Finkelstein and Silberman argue convincingly that Josiah, wanting to expand his kingdom to include the now fallen kingdom of Israel, found it useful to weave together the "histories" of the northern and southern kingdoms to create one unified and sacred text uniting the peoples of these two kingdoms. This understanding is not so far afield from earlier scholars who attribute the Deuteronomistic History (Joshua--2 Kings) to the time of Josiah and later. As a seminary professor and an ordained Christian minister, I am not willing to throw David and Solomon out and I struggle with those who argue that the Bible was constructed in the Persian and Hellenistic periods. Finkelstein and Silberman are not amond these minimalists and are well within what is argued by mainline scholars, especially those trying to come to terms with how the Bible and the archaeological data coincide and differ. Yes this book will rankle feathers yet it isn't far afield from what has been recently argued by biblical experts. This book will be assigned to my students because I want these people, who will be church leaders and scholars, to struggle with these issues. It is a well written and researched book and has a great deal to offer the reader. Besides, should questions threaten one's faith, one must question the veracity of the faith that was threatened.
116 von 133 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
I will never see the Bible the same again. 6. Oktober 2004
Von Beverly Hines - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Gebundene Ausgabe
Whoa! If you are a person who interprets the Bible from a modern, traditional perspective then be prepared to be troubled when you read this book. These authors suggest some brow-raising hypotheses and seem to show some support for them.

I read this book after I read Richard E. Friedman's book Who Wrote the Bible? That was a good way to do it. Friedman's gentle voice (he seems to still value the Bible as a spiritual guide of some sort and states he still holds a Christian perspective) tenderly lowered me into the cauldron while Finkelstein and Silberman's more stark and detailed punches knocked me around a bit.

I will say that this book took some discipline for me to get through. It was definitely worth the effort, but it is not quite as easy a read as Friedman's.

I do grieve and mourn that the Bible will never be the same for me again. On the other hand, I am beginning to be hopeful that one can embrace all these new perspectives of the Bible and still find spiritual food (Walter Brueggemann is a Christian author that seems to have embraced many of these new findings and yet seems to be unperturbed by them. In fact he seems to be finding a way to incorporate them into his spiritual journey.)

I must also admit that I am excited about what this new paradigm can do in liberating many of us from Biblioidolatry.
77 von 91 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
Bible History through the Looking Glass... 23. Februar 2001
Von Thomas J. Brucia - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Gebundene Ausgabe
This book turned my view of the Bible inside out. When my vision cleared, many things made sense for the first time. -------- The basic argument of this work is that "archeology can show that the Torah and the Deuteronomistic History bear unmistakable hallmarks of their compilation in the seventh century BCE... [and that] much of the biblical narrative is a product of the hopes, fears, and ambitions of the kingdom of Judah, culminating in the reign of King Josiah at the end of the seventh century BCE." -------- The commonsensical implications Finkelstein and Silberman draw from this are earth shattering. Did Abraham ever exist? Did the Jews live in Egypt, and follow a man called Moses into the Sinai desert? Did the invasion of The Promised Land occur - and were the battles at Jericho and Ai actual events? Was Solomon a historic figure, and if so, was he a king over a large nation - or only a minor tribal chieftain? Ditto, David? Did they build an empire - or was that just a myth? And how late was it that the Jews really became monotheists? --------If the archeological record and the biblical accounts meshed, this book could not have been written. The fact that they do NOT makes this a fascinating adventure into the past. Much of the archeological proof of the authors' thesis is of recent provenance: the last 30 years... Finkelstein and Silberman typically present the Biblical story or stories, then their critique of that narrative, and finally, their alternative explanation. They focus on (1) uncovering historical truth and attempting to distinguish it from myth; and (2) explaining the motivations of the author(s) of the Biblical narrative. I believe that they have done a scholarly job of both. One useful characteristic of this tome is that it is liberally strewn with maps (13), drawings (14) and tables (9) that definitely round out the text. -------- Despite the title, "The Bible Unearthed" is strictly a study of two-thirds of the Tanakh (or Old Testament) - specifically The Torah (aka Pentateuch), and The Prophets (Neviim). [Not included are the non-historical accounts known as The Sacred Writings (Ketuvim), which were written between the destruction of the Temple in 586 BCE and the first century BCE.] -------- I find it difficult to understand how one could substantially disagree with the authors' thesis but even those who disagree with the authors' conclusions should read this enthralling book. One can learn a lot from it, no matter what one's ideological stance
47 von 56 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
Engaging, but one-sided 29. August 2012
Von Amazon Customer - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
The authors offer a provocative thesis enveloped in an engaging narrative that carries the reader along, charming them into believing the provocative thesis must be correct. But something is strangely absent from the engaging narrative: evidence. Broad generalizations interspersed with standard textbook facts about the archaeology of Palestine propel the narrative to its controversial conclusion.

I realize this was aimed at a popular audience unfamiliar with biblical studies or the archaeology of the ancient Near East so that likely explains the minimal scholarly interaction in the book. Even so, I found it frustrating (knowing the other side of the issues they're addressing) that they consistently asserted their interpretations of archaeological data without arguing for their perspective or acknowledging there was even a debate about what some of these things mean.

The book is at the same time thought-provoking and frustrating. It is thought-provoking because some of their interpretations make a lot of sense. It is frustrating because of the lack of interaction with competing interpretations and the general lack of hard data for the most controversial parts of their thesis. As far as the provocative thesis goes, the authors claim that most of the Hebrew Scriptures--at least, the main historical narrative of Genesis-2 Kings -were produced in the time of King Josiah. In their view, the Hebrew Bible is an attempt to project Josiah's hopes for expanded territory and purer Yahweh worship back in time to the history and geography of the Exodus and Conquest. The glory days of David and Solomon are no more real (and just as legendary) as King Arthur and Camelot. The composition of the Hebrew Bible can then be understood in somewhat messianic terms centered on King Josiah, especially passages reflecting the hopes and dreams for the nation pinned on a special Davidic king (Josiah) and later passages responding to the theological crisis of failure (Josiah's death at the hands of Neco in 605).

I find elements of this thesis compelling. I think Josiah and the late 7th century was a pivotal time for the composition of the Hebrew Bible. In fact, it makes sense that a lot of literary activity was going on from 722-586 BCE as Judah saw the cultural destruction of Israel and absorbed many of her refugees. However, I think Finkelstein and Silberman have overplayed the evidence with their thesis. The main weakness of the book is that they prefer to assert their conclusions rather than demonstrate their evidence. You have to take their word for it because they're not going to give you any help in retracing their steps with the evidence.
I know that many of their conclusions based on archaeology are hotly contested, especially concerning the dating of possible 10th century structures and the identity of the early Israelites. But they don't acknowledge any doubt or alternative opinions in their narrative. Since they don't use footnotes or endnotes, they couldn't engage the scholarly literature there either. The only semblance that they are even aware of the scholarship on the subject is a detailed bibliography at the very end listed according to chapter. Ironically, they present alternative interpretations for some subjects in the back in a series of appendices, but their rebuttal of the evidence sometimes seems to undermine the argument they were trying to make in the rest of the book - about Josiah's program of expansion, for example.

The book is worth reading if only because it raises important questions about who wrote the Bible, when did they write it, and why. At every turn, the authors challenge the simplistic traditional answers to these questions.
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