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The Anatomy of Violence: The Biological Roots of Crime (Vintage) [Englisch] [Taschenbuch]

Adrian Raine

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Kurzbeschreibung

11. Februar 2014 Vintage

A New Scientist Best Book of 2013
Winner of The Athenaeum of Philadelphia's Annual Literary Award

Why do some kids from good environments become mass murderers? Is there actually such a thing as a natural born killer? And, if so, what can we do to identify and treat those born with a predisposition to criminal behavior?

For more than three decades Adrian Raine has sought answers to these questions through his pioneering research on the biological basis for violence. In this book, he presents the growing body of evidence that shows how genetics and environmental influences can conspire to create a criminal brain, and how something as seemingly innocent as a low resting heart rate can give rise to a violent personality. Bristling with ingenious experiments, surprising data, and shocking case studies, this is also a clear-eyed inquiry into the thorny ethical issues this science raises about prevention and punishment. Passionate, courageous, and at times controversial, The Anatomy of Violence is a ground-breaking work that will challenge your core human values and perspectives on violence.


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Praise for Adrian Raine's The Anatomy of Violence

“Provocative. . . . [Raine] makes a good case that certain genetic, neurological, and physiological factors do predict violent behavior. . . . He argues, convincingly, that . . . benign and relatively cheap interventions could have huge social benefits.”
New York Times Book Review

“Well-written and engaging. . . . Mr. Raine reminds us of all the interesting things we do know about genes, brains and the environment that can tilt someone toward anti-social behavior. . . . A good read. What makes it something more is Mr. Raine's contention that violence is a public-health issue and that this forces upon society some uncomfortable ideas about possible interventions.”
The Wall Street Journal

“Lively, engaging. . . . A convincing case that violent criminals are biologically different from the rest of us. . . . [Raine] has the research at his fingertips—not surprising, since he carried out much of it—and makes a compelling case that society needs to grapple with the biological underpinnings of violent crime just as vigorously as the social causes, if not more so.”
New Scientist

“Anyone who truly seeks an answer to questions about nature vs. nurture should read Raine’s book. The Anatomy of Violence includes many interesting studies, with provocative findings. He also raises important philosophical questions about what we could, and perhaps should, do with what we’re learning.”
Psychology Today

“Readable, and at times controversial. . . . [The Anatomy of Violence] is worth reading by anyone who has an interest in violence and criminal behavior, not because it provides definitive answers, but for its value in setting the stage for ongoing thought and discussion.”
Washington Independent Review of Books
 
“Are ‘criminal tendencies’ hard-wired or acquired? . . . Psychologist Adrian Raine argues the biological case, marshalling swathes of findings and case studies of murderers and rapists. . . . Provocative and bristling with data.”
Nature

“Groundbreaking. . . . Never before has a ‘map of the criminal mind’ been written about so convincingly. . . . Raine offers us the most compelling look to date at the connection between human genetics and human acts of violence. . . . The Anatomy of Violence will convince even the most skeptical that there is a genetic or biological cause for the violence exhibited by psychopaths across all cultures. . . . The Anatomy of Violence is an astonishingly accessible account of all the major elements—environmental, social, biochemical, psychological, and neurological—related to crime and human violence, leading us to the conclusion that yes, some people are natural born killers.”
New York Journal of Books

“An extremely informative, thoughtful and illuminating book . . . a tour de force.”
—David P Farrington, Psychological Medicine

“Fascinating. . . . The message that ought to be taken from this book is that criminality should be seen as a public health problem. Excellent child nutrition, strict controls on the use of heavy metals, classes in parenting and extra learning support for children and parents from difficult backgrounds. . . . Raine’s book represents a compelling argument that they are not optional extras, boom-time luxuries, but measures that have the potential to save countless billions, and countless lives.”
The New Statesman

“A passionately argued, well-written, and fascinating take on the biology of violence and its legal and ethical implications.”
Publishers Weekly (starred review)

“Compelling research. . . . Although the topic will certainly continue to provoke controversy, Raine offers a highly accessible look at the latest research on the biology behind criminal behavior.”
Booklist

“An exhaustive, unvarnished survey of what is known about the neurobiological correlates of physical violence. It is deeply informative and it makes for disquieting reading. It wisely refrains from claiming a single cause for the problem or advocating a single solution. It is an indispensable reference.”
—Antonio Damasio, author of Descartes’ Error and Self Comes to Mind

"Important. . . . A thorough yet sparkling, erudite but beautifully written account. . . . Raine discusses complex scientific and ethical issues and illustrates them by drawing on a series of famous, sometimes unsettling case studies, thereby making scientific knowledge more accessible to a wide audience. What emerges is a rich picture of the complexities of human violence. The book is gripping from start to finish."
—Stephanie van Goozen, Professor of Psychology, Cardiff University

“[The Anatomy of Violence] is not only for students of this topic, but for any inquiring mind. It is just simply captivating, both emotionally and intellectually.”
—Diana Fishbein, Ph.D., Senior Fellow and Scientist, Transdisciplinary Science and Translational Prevention Program, RTI International

“Indispensable. . . . A highly readable, often gripping account of how our biology affects our violence. The book’s great success is that it makes how we learned about crime and the brain as exciting as what we have learned. If we take this book seriously, criminology can move much closer to solving some of the biggest mysteries we face.”
—Lawrence W. Sherman, Wolfson Professor of Criminology, Director, Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge
 
“At once highly educational and surprisingly entertaining. . . . An easy, highly enjoyable, and richly rewarding read. The significant social, biological, and legal aspects of violent behavior make it a virtual minefield of sensitive and controversial issues.”
—Joe P. Newman, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison
 
“A great read. . . . This is a book that will make you reflect on how you personally and society more generally views and responds to antisocial behavior. Is it time to think of violence as a disease, where rehabilitation takes precedence over punishment, and where prevention may be the only real cure? Read the book, and then you be the judge.”
—Mark S. Frankel, Ph.D., Director, Scientific Responsibility, Human Rights and Law Program, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
 
“Courageous, brilliant, and provocative. . . . Based on the latest scientific evidence Raine poses the fundamental question, Where does society draw the line between the effects of nature and nurture on brain function?”
—Larry W. Swanson, Ph.D., University Professor and Appleman Professor of Biological Sciences, Neurology, and Psychology, University of Southern California

“With The Anatomy of Violence, Raine brings the full force of his pioneering research, clear-eyed analysis, and sound policy prescriptions to our violence problem in America. Get ready for a tour de force in science, and one hell of a gripping read!”
—Brandon C. Welsh, professor of criminology, Northeastern University, author of Saving Children from a Life of Crime
 
"Anytime I need to know anything about the biology of crime, I go straight away to Adrian Raine. . . . Indispensable reading for students, researchers, practitioners, and policy makers."
—Terrie Moffitt, professor, Duke University and King's College London

Über den Autor und weitere Mitwirkende

Adrian Raine is the Richard Perry University Professor of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania, and a leading authority on the biology of violence. After leaving secondary school to become an airline accountant, he abandoned his financial career and spent four years as a prison psychologist to understand why some individuals become violent psychopaths while others do not.


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Amazon.com: 4.3 von 5 Sternen  84 Rezensionen
58 von 63 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen Outstanding! 11. April 2013
Von Burgundy Damsel - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe|Vine Kundenrezension eines kostenfreien Produkts (Was ist das?)
I was concerned when I picked this up that it would be just another apologetic about how criminals aren't really responsible for their own behavior, but it has turned out to be the best book I've read in ages!

Raine is an adept writer, enthusiastic about his subject and impressively balanced in his approach. The book is exceptionally well organized with a logical, easy-to-read flow of ideas and concepts. The case studies are fascinating, and the scientific results rendered in way that both maintains their intellectual integrity and makes them accessible to the lay reader.

The author is upfront about the interconnected impacts of nature and nurture, clearly demonstrating what effects are strictly biological, which ones are socially driven, and how differing combinations of nature & nurture can produce radically different results. The section on the impacts on fetal/infant brain development reminded me of The Crazy Makers: How the Food Industry Is Destroying Our Brains and Harming Our Children in that it shows you the biological impacts of social choices, which was fascinating and extremely well done.

I think this book should be required reading for parents, teachers, and the law enforcement/justice systems en masse - while Raine never claims to have all the answers, his insights are invaluable and will change the way you look at violence and crime. This was a pleasure to read, and I will look for more by this author in the future.
22 von 23 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
4.0 von 5 Sternen Good Presentation of the Current State of Research 19. April 2013
Von Jay - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe|Vine Kundenrezension eines kostenfreien Produkts (Was ist das?)
Most research into crime takes a sociological approach. Raine brings out the latest research into biological models and puts forward several controversial theories that put the biological (largely genetic based) models over the sociological models. He often reigns himself back in, mentioning that his models ARE theoretical, but his writing becomes evangelical on several occasions. Careful reading is necessary to pick these passages out and not get carried away in the author's enthusiasm.

After 28 years working in law enforcement, I believe that Raine's work is groundbreaking and necessary, but over time - the reality of the models will edge back to the center - namely that nature and nurture both play a part in criminality.

I believe this book would be good for folks in law enforcement, criminology, neuropsychology, and lay persons who want to be able to have a grasp on the current issues. After reading this book, I would recommend you visit 'The Science of Evil' by Simon Baron-Cohen for an alternate take on the issue.

All the best,

Jay
35 von 43 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
4.0 von 5 Sternen Quite informative, but not perfect. 11. April 2013
Von Anthony Sanchez - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe|Vine Kundenrezension eines kostenfreien Produkts (Was ist das?)
The Anatomy of Violence presents the latest innovation in the field of psychology and human behavior, that is the use of neuroscience. As I tell my students, when I was an undergraduate I heard some professors remark on how it would be of interest to know the workings of the brain so as to better understand behavior. However, at the time these were only suppositions since science had not developed the actual machinery to view more closely the brain and the neurological system. In the last 30 some years, though, we now have techniques such as the MRI and fMRI and various neurotransmitter studies to allow for improved understanding of the connection between our biology and behavior. The science of neuropsychology seems destined to revolutionize the field of psychology/psychiatry and it is a welcomed progress.

The author, Adrian Raine, is a well published professor at Penn University in criminology and psychology. His latest book, while helpful to the professional, is designed to present to the layperson the latest findings in the biology of crime. Most chapters begin with a true story of murderers, or rapists, etc., but whose behavior is often bizarre enough to both disgust and make one curious as to what was causing their criminal behavior. He proceeds in each chapter to dissect the criminal's behavior and place it in context of his biological process and the resulting crime.

Raine is at his writing best and most informative when he stays to the clinical task of helping the reader understand the neurological system. His explanations are clear and he treats his readers with respect on a difficult subject for many of us.

Raine, unfortunately is not content on holding to neuroscience. He also wants the reader to understand and appreciate how another new discipline in psychology, evolutionary psychology, can help us comprehend the criminal mind. On this area, I find him preachy and sometimes condescending to his audience. For example, in one chapter her presents interesting studies that correctly show parents who kill the children are more likely to do so when the child is an infant than an older child. Raine uses this as evidence of evolution (the parent does not want to expend parental time/effort on an unwanted child) and dismisses contrary but simpler theories such as the fact that infants can be so incredibly annoying especially to the very young mother. His dismissal comes in terms of challenging the reader to consider when they were most annoying to our parents, as an infant or as a teenager. As if any of us have a recollection of our infancy. While reading I wondered how many middle of the nights the professor woke to care for his crying babies (I don't know if he has children). I know for my children at those times I often thought, "It's a good thing you are mine and I love you!"

I do not say that evolutionary psychology ideas are bogus, but in comparison to much of the neuroscience presentation, he is reverting to purely hypothetical ideas with little to no empirical basis. This, therefore, weakens his central thesis at least in my opinion. I also found his condemnation of the death penalty more as propagandizing than scientifically rational. I too share serious concerns about this type of penalty, but Raine treats the issue more as a pugilist than a scientist. This effort removes him from the field of science and frankly fails to convert the uncommitted.

Regardless of these qualms, I believe that Raine provides both the professional and the public with enough information on the biology of crime as to make this book a worthy read. I intend on recommending it to my students.
22 von 26 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen sophisticated, informative, yet highly readable 7. April 2013
Von S.E. Poza - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe|Vine Kundenrezension eines kostenfreien Produkts (Was ist das?)
I am very interested in brain chemistry as it relates to all human behavior and was looking forward to this book as a resource for providing insight and detailed information on how the brains of those who commit acts of violence or crime differ from those who do not. This book definitely delivers in terms of providing data and solid scientific information about the many ways in which brain chemistry differs and how things like head injury can change personality. If you are well-versed in the basics of neurobiology (something you'd have with either an undergraduate degree in a social sciences field or through watching enough documentaries to give you some basic knowledge), you will follow the science easily.

The part that I didn't expect, and was pleasantly surprised by, was how incredibly readable this book is. Though it incorporates a lot of theory and hard science, it reads with energy and a high level of anecdotal detail that makes it hard to put down. It is anything but dry and boring (as these books can sometimes be). Despite a background in accounting and neurobiology, Adrian Raine knows how to weave stories into his content and structure his prose such that you feel like you're part of a forensic story-telling anthology. He uses case studies, personal experience, and science to the best possible purpose. This is, by far, one of the more accessible and interesting "textbook" type books I've ever experienced.

The only down side to the book, and this is common in all books that deal with science, is that there is a clear bias present in certain parts of the book. It is clear that Dr. Raine is an advocate of evolutionary theory and, especially in the early part of the book, he attempts to shoehorn far too many things about human behavior into that framework and to dismiss or mitigate the effects of environment. For instance, while at one point he says that a study showed that 21% of a child's behavior is the result of parenting (and 50% is genetic according to other studies), he mentions without explanation that another theorist suggest that parents have zero effect on their kid's behavior (attributing the remaining "nurture" experience to outside influences like school and society).

While the bias was a bit frustrating at times, it is quite limited to certain portions of the book and can easily be taken in the context of all scientific bias. It in no way takes away from the major portion of the book or how engrossing it is. This is a rare book that has depth and breadth of knowledge and is not dumbed down, yet is still an interesting read.
12 von 15 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen A fascinating look into the brains of criminals and psychopaths 23. April 2013
Von J. Ott - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe|Vine Kundenrezension eines kostenfreien Produkts (Was ist das?)
Encouraged by crime fiction writer Jonathan Kellerman, Professor Adrian Raine of the University of Pennsylvania has put his life's work into a book intended for (smart) lay readers. Anatomy of Violence delves into many stories and studies that tease out biological factors common to criminals.

While Prof. Raine openly acknowledges the controversy of, for example, studying genes that occur with greater frequency among people rated as aggressive, he is nonetheless gung-ho about differences between criminal minds and neurotypical normies. As long as you can supply your own skepticism, Raine makes an excellent tour guide to this world of brain science, nutrition, sociology and serial killers.

First, Prof. Raine starts with an evolutionary theory of violence as adaptive (or at least a certain level of violence in a population). He connects this to studies that show children are overwhelmingly more likely to be murdered by their parents in their first year of life -- saving resources -- and that murders among non-biological family members (step-parents, step-children) are more common than among family members who share genes. I found this part of the book, with its 'just so' stories and cherry-picked data, to be the least persuasive.

When the book moves into the territory of Raine's actual research, much of which involves brain scans and heart-rate tests, it gets stronger. Raine argues from cross-cultural evidence of a correlation in resting heart rates and anti-social behavior that those predisposed to low heart rates form habits of acting-out to increase stimulation.

In this theory and elsewhere, Raine is very careful to acknowledge the complexity of the human body and the many uncertainties that remain. Nonetheless, I come away from reading this book with a stronger belief that many poor souls are locked up in jails today thanks to factors going back to pre-natal nutrition, parental attachment and brain disorders.

The section of the book where Raine examines the unique brain structure of psychopaths is fascinating. He discovers a high prevalence of psychopaths among the ranks of temp agencies and is able to sort those who are "successful" at hiding their crimes with those who aren't based on superior autonomic and executive functioning. Raine suggests that the qualities that make some people with psychopathic tendencies good at crime also make others good at defusing bombs, running companies or interviewing Presidents.

Raine discusses several recent court cases where brain trauma evident on scans of criminals (cysts, tumors, etc.) persuaded juries that defendants did not have full control over their actions. But since the regions of the brain associated with criminal behavior can be injured or under-developed by degrees, what does this mean for free will and culpability?

Where does innocence end and guilt begin? Prof. Raine provides the evidence, but the jury is still out.

OVERALL

I would recommend this book to anyone with a curiosity about the latest research in criminology and early-brain development. Prof. Raine is not afraid to drop a lot of polysyllabic brain region words, so some experience in brain anatomy will help in following the text. I found it eye-opening and thought-provoking throughout.
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