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Revolution In Mind: The Creation of Psychoanalysis

Revolution In Mind: The Creation of Psychoanalysis [Kindle Edition]

George Makari

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"'Makari has written nothing less than a history of the modern mind... With an astounding breadth of knowledge and an unprecedented gift for synthesis, he takes the reader on a European journey that begins in the late nineteenth century and ends in the cataclysm of the Second World War... Revolution in Mind is moving story of what we lost when the old world went up in flames' - Paul Auster 'George Makari has provided a powerful synthesis that firmly roots psychoanalysis in intellectual and social history. The result is a highly readable, exciting adventure story with many unexpected turns. A definitive interpretation of psychoanalysis as a movement, a perspective, and a field, Revolution in Mind is destined to be a classic. A magisterial and towering achievement' - Jack D Barchas, M.D., Psychiatrist-in-Chief at Weill Cornell Medical College, member of the Institute for Medicine and former Dean of Neuroscience at U.C.L.A 'Revolution in Mind is an extraordinary book, quite unlike anything else that has been written... Makari's book will be the authoritative history on the making of Freudian psychoanalysis.' - Lawrence, Friedman, M.D., Associate Editor of the Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association and Psychoanalytic Quarterly 'There have been many books regarded as "histories" of psychoanalysis. This new and fundamental work by George Makari is different and unique... This book marks a nodal point in the history of the history of psychoanalysis... If one wants to know how psychoanalysis came to be, this is the place to begin.' - Robert Michels, M.D., Training and Supervising analyst at the Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research and the Walsh McDermott University Professor of Medicine and Psychiatry at Cornell University 'Makari possesses the deep requisite knowledge of the history, philosophy, and of course, the subject matter of psychoanalysis to carry out just such an examination of the roots of the Freudians. He has here accomplished that, perhaps for the first time anyone has done so, to an exemplary, satisfying, and most enjoyable degree.' - Mitchell J. Feigenbaum, Ph.D., founder of chaos theory, MacArthur Fellow and Toyota Professor at Rockefeller University"


Based on new archival materials and a decade of research, Revolution in Mind is a radically new history of psychoanalysis. It tells the story of the birth, development, and death of psychoanalysis in Europe between 1870 and 1945, integrating these chapters into a coherent narrative for the first time.

How did Freudian Theory come together as a body of ideas, and how did these ideas attract followers who spread this model of mind throughout the West? Makari contextualises Freud’s early psychological work amid the great changes occurring in late-nineteenth-century European science, philosophy, and medicine, showing how Freud was a creative, inter-disciplinary synthesizer whose immersion in pre-existing domains of study led to the creation of Freudian Theory. He looks at how Freud’s followers built a heterogeneous movement in the years leading to 1914, at the growth of the movement, and its subsequent collapse with the departures of Bleuler, Jung, and Adler. Finally, Makari examines the critical, but neglected, Weimar period, when there was an attempt to rebuild a more pluralistic psychoanalytic community. This reformation resulted in the broader theoretical reach of psychoanalysis and its greater acceptance across the Western world outside Europe, where the rise of fascism was to lead to the destruction of psychoanalysis and the culture that once sustained it.

George Makari M.D. is Director of Cornell’s Institute for the History of Psychiatry, Associate Professor of Psychiatry at Weill Medical College, and Visiting Associate Professor at Rockefeller University.


  • Format: Kindle Edition
  • Dateigröße: 1822 KB
  • Seitenzahl der Print-Ausgabe: 626 Seiten
  • ISBN-Quelle für Seitenzahl: 0061346624
  • Verlag: Gerald Duckworth (23. März 2010)
  • Verkauf durch: Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
  • Sprache: Englisch
  • ASIN: B003DQK788
  • Text-to-Speech (Vorlesemodus): Aktiviert
  • X-Ray:
  • Amazon Bestseller-Rang: #352.157 Bezahlt in Kindle-Shop (Siehe Top 100 Bezahlt in Kindle-Shop)

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26 von 27 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen Revolution in Mind 15. Februar 2008
Von Dr. Michael Beldoch - Veröffentlicht auf
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe
Revolution in Mind

What a wonderful book! After a reader's diet consisting almost entirely of Freud based polemics of one sort or another, here is an elegantly written overview of the field of psychoanalysis that is a pleasure to read. The first sentence in the book, "When the twenty-nine year-old doctor stepped off the train in the fall of 1895, he was a failure", gives a hint of the palpable humanity that will follow. George Makari is a psychiatrist and a psychoanalyst, but he is essentially an historian with the breadth of mind and perspective that is that discipline at its best.

At almost five hundred pages, absent notes, it is far too short! Makari whets the appetite with the range of his intellect as he scans such diverse fields of study at the end of the nineteenth century as psychophysics, sexology, neuroanatomy, hypnosis, psychopathology, psychotherapy, evolutionary biology, etc., weaving together the variety of views of psyche and soma that will come together in this "revolution in mind", but as he does so he sprinkles about vignettes of so many fascinating and colorful characters that if fleshed out as the reader might wish, it would result in a multi-volume encyclopedia rather than the fast paced intellectual excitement it is.

Nevertheless, even as presented in textured vignettes, the richness and variety of personalities that people this history in the making is awesome. Those already familiar with the usual suspects (Jung, Adler, Freud father and daughter, etc.) will be delighted to add to their knowledge Karl Kraus and Krafft-Ebing, Bleuler and Brill, Reik and Reich, and many dozens more. The notion that psychoanalysis sprang from Sigmund Freud's head alone, that it was some kind of mid-summer's night's dream he concocted which "caught on" for awhile in the century just past, is forever laid to rest in Makari's tour de force. As the author writes, "The culture that had given birth to psychoanalysis had become a graveyard...(but) a man (Freud) has come to represent a history....haunting his sons and daughters, his enemies and his friends."
12 von 12 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen You don't have to be a specialist to find this thrilling 24. Mai 2008
Von krebsman - Veröffentlicht auf
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe
As someone who knew very little about the beginnings of psychoanalysis, I was delighted to come across this book. It filled in a lot of gaps in my knowledge. Now I know how such names as Karl Jung, Otto Rank, Alfred Adler, Wilhelm Reich and Melanie Klein were connected with Freud. George Makari's book is a painstakingly detailed account not only of the struggle of psychoanalysis to gain legitimacy in the scientific community, but also of the internal struggles among Freud and his disciples and their shifting positions on the subject of the unconscious. It is all exciting reading, believe it or not. Friends become enemies, followers become antagonists and innovators become heretics. And all this takes place against the backdrop of Hitler's rise to power and psychoanalysts are forced to take sides. This is an outstanding work that I would highly recommend to anyone with an interest in the Twentieth Century, which I believe will ultimately be known as "The Freudian Age." Five stars.
9 von 12 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen Louis H. Hamel, Jr., Esq. Review 9. April 2008
Von Louis H. Hamel Jr. - Veröffentlicht auf
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe
Flowing smooth and limpid as a mountain stream, this big readable book quickly overcomes the reader's resistance to still another piece about the origins of Psychoanalysis. Even if one got the book only because its author, Dr. George Makari, has already firmly established the excellence of his writing, one's faith is vindicated right away. It becomes hard to put the book down.

Not only does Makari's book contain more information, a clearer and closer look at the issues and the personalities than any other history of this topic, but also it sheds welcome light on the forces bringing about the various dialectical theses, oppositions and revisions of belief in the field of Psychoanalysis, and neighboring fields. This is done in the context of those diverse forces (including an anti-Semitic Europe weary of its own sexual inhibition and its post-Kantian intellectual exhaustion, yet comfortably cloaked in Hapsburg elegance) which are instances of the forces which inevitably oppose any "Revolution in Mind."

If the worth of a history can be scored not only by the number of facts it describes with illumination, but also by the number of times the reader has to stop and think, arresting any sense that, "I already knew that," this book is tops. It's the best history -- with respect for Ernest Jones, Peter Gay, Frank Sulloway and others -- of the origins of Psychoanalysis, and one of the best histories of any important intellectual or institutional development.

Among its other virtues, Makari's book is an excellent study of the dialectical development of a set of beliefs from an initial thesis (or set of theses) to opposition and differentiation, to reformulation. The story is remarkably similar to the development of Christianity from a revolutionary "gospel" ("good news") to a "creed" which is the product of heated controversy, compromise and hard choices, and thence to a powerful stable institution.

Makari's treatment of "The Question of Lay Analysis," in the context of the Freudian thesis of infantile sexuality, which invited eager quacks and charlatans to celebrate with a party of wild analysis, with the ideal of a staid and virtuously neutral "Science" being invoked in defense of orthodox Psychoanalysis, brings up for study the entire question of orthodoxy and authoritative credentials (like the MD), including public licensing for the protection of those whom P. T. Barnum would identify by saying, "A fool is born every minute." Just a few centuries before Freud, ironically, anyone pleading "Science" in defense of an unorthodox belief might get burnt at the stake. The history told by Makari made the plea of "Science" the only available defense to Freud and Psychoanalysts, as pleading Philosophy or Poetry might get them burnt at the stake not by ecclestical authority but by academic authority, and to plead "Listening with the Third Ear" could get them committted to an insane asylum.

Today in America, the use of the MD as the requisite credential is a thing of the past, but the underlying question of "Why credentials?" remains. One must pause at the question of credentials for a psychoanalyst. Imagine Socrates getting a license to ask, in the Agora, "What is the Good Life?" Imagine Diogenes the Cynica, sleeping naked under the tub, getting a license to go about the world with his lantern, in search of an honest man.

Can "Revolution in Mind" (note that the title has different meanings depending on where one puts the emphasis), which not only is a fait accompli by Freud and others, but also is the subject of their discovery of the ever-flowing river -- Heraclitus said, "You can't step into the same river twice" -- of the psyche, a river partly running underground, be reconciled with orothodoxy? Can revolution (ask a Marxist) be reconciled with the need to comply with norms set forth by the heirarchy of an institution (in one of its protean personifications)? Unless the answer is "Yes," there can be no Psychoanalysis; and unless the answer is "No," there can be no Psychoanalysis. (The same might be said of religion.)

Interspersed among the details and helpful connections made ever so deftly (with hardly ever any sign of judgmental intervention by the historian [who, at best, can only hope to tell a "likely story," according to H. G. Wells] are wonderful photographs and a few gems like this one: --

"Altenberg sought to cast off conventional ethics and return to a natural primitivity; toward this goal he advocated a panoply of health measures aimed at a liberation from clothing, especially women's undergarments. His motto was, 'One cannot wear too little.' One Winter he caught pneumonia and died. p. 141

Makari is respectful of the inexorable forces creating institutional limits, similar to the "character armor" W. Reich explained as the essential psychic skin, but he is not above an occasional tongue-in-cheek observation, as when, in his Epilogue, he describes the travails of the reorganization of the more-or-less organized Psychoanalysis in New York City, in the 1940s, after the city's recept of hordes of distinguished emigre analysts who had fled Nazi Europe: --

"The New York group also tried to pass an amendment that banned any seccessions without prior approval from the association, an amendment that seemed to misunderstand the nature of a secession." p. 482

In his Acknowledgements, Dr. Makari refers to those who "kept my mountain of work [in preparing his materials] from crushing me." Except for that remark, the reader is allowed comfortably to think that the author must have been there, seen and heard all the events he describes, and knew personally all the people whose many zig-zag moves and manners make up the story. He tells his very long and complex story with the disarming ease characteristic of great story-tellers.

Louis H. Hamel, Jr., Esq.
5.0 von 5 Sternen Wow, a Masterpiece! 13. Januar 2014
Von Jonathan S. - Veröffentlicht auf
Format:Taschenbuch|Verifizierter Kauf
This book should be required reading for anybody with an interest in Freud or the origins of psychoanalysis. The book corrects a lot of false impressions I had regarding the process through which psychoanalysis was born.
5.0 von 5 Sternen A novel, a history book, a family drama and much more... 25. Dezember 2013
Von Red Tailed Hawk - Veröffentlicht auf
This is a beautiful book. It reads like a novel, a history book, a family drama and like a very interesting summary of key psychoanalytic theories as they developed through the second half of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century.

The psychoanalytic theory is presented on a very light level, so although I imagine the primary readers of this book will be psychodynamically oriented therapists and students, it should be read quite comfortably even by readers with no prior knowledge of psychoanalysis.

Being personally quite familiar with these theories even before embarking on the book, I was still quite pleasantly surprised on how my prior knowledge was expended and enriched by learning about them in their appropriate historical and personal context.

I was also fascinated to learn that most of the theories that are today sold as being authored by Freud weren’t originally his at all. Freud masterfully sensitized them together, but he also very often plagiarized them without acknowledging the original author. This makes Freud much more human and less original in thought, compared to how he is often portrayed in some other biographical works.

I cannot conclude this summary without comparing this book to “The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry.” The later talks about the same topic in a same way, is twice its size and much more expensive. I only skipped through it and found it much alike, but some important details I was after was missing. So this and the fact that it cost five this as much, made my decide to buy this book. So if you can afford only one, go with this one as it’s much cheaper and still very very good. But if you can afford both, definitely read the other too.
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