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Punished by Rewards: The Trouble with Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, A's, Praise, and Other Bribes (Englisch) Taschenbuch – 30. September 1999


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Produktinformation

  • Taschenbuch: 448 Seiten
  • Verlag: Mariner Books; Auflage: None. (30. September 1999)
  • Sprache: Englisch
  • ISBN-10: 0618001816
  • ISBN-13: 978-0618001811
  • Größe und/oder Gewicht: 15,2 x 2,5 x 22,9 cm
  • Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: 2.0 von 5 Sternen  Alle Rezensionen anzeigen (3 Kundenrezensionen)
  • Amazon Bestseller-Rang: Nr. 62.908 in Fremdsprachige Bücher (Siehe Top 100 in Fremdsprachige Bücher)
  • Komplettes Inhaltsverzeichnis ansehen

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Produktbeschreibungen

Pressestimmen

"a clear, convincing demonstration of the shortcomings of pop-behaviorism, written with style, humor, and authority," Kirkus Reviews

"Every parent, teacher, and manager should read this book -- and hurry." -- Thomas Gordon, founder of Parent Effectiveness Training

Synopsis

Criticizes the system of motivating through reward, offering arguments for motivating people by working with them instead of doing things to them.

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Einleitungssatz
THERE IS A TIME to admire the grace and persuasive power of an influential idea, and there is a time to fear its hold over us. Lesen Sie die erste Seite
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4 von 5 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich Von Beverly E. Smith (ely@esn.net) am 2. November 1999
Format: Taschenbuch
The author introduces a view of extrinsic rewards that is totally different from what most people have known. Kohn suggest that competition and reward are unhealthy and will deter motivation. He contends that rewards are bribes and used as a method to control people. To substantiate his stand against pop-behaviorism, Kohn examines the reward systems in the classroom. He offers many references and support in his aim to prove that the use of rewards is counterproductive in the classroom, workplace and at home. Kohn's ideas differ greatly from "mainstream" thinking about education. Devoting chapter 6 to the praise problem, Kohn suggests that praise benefits the giver rather the recipent, causing an imbalance in power. Most classroom teachers have been taught to be in control of their students. This chapter goes against the praise-and-ignore approach that Brophy views as helpful in classroom management. Also, inclusive classrooms are a fast-growing concept in education. Many approaches that Kohn suggest in this book may not apply to the children with behavior problems that are in our classrooms now. These students need praise and some form of a reward system. Futhermore, I strongly disagree with Kohn's attitude on the Book-It program. The most important journey that my first graders embark upon is "learning to read". During their journey, they participate in the Book-It program. Kohn is opposed to this literacy awareness program that offers a pizza slip to each child that reaches his/her goal each month. Contrary to Kohn's belief that the child will stop reading once the pizza slips stop, this program actually intensifies their desire to become readers. Another dominate practice in schools that Kohn opposes is the grading system.Lesen Sie weiter... ›
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3 von 13 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich Von Scott A Methe am 9. Mai 2000
Format: Taschenbuch
Alfie Kohn uses a cute, marketable saying "the three C's" to refute decades of empirically validated evidence supporting behaviorism. Although behaviorism in itself is not infallible, it does offer a built-in method of evaluating its results. All Kohn offers is "theoretical evidence" to support his findings. This is vastly different from empirical evidence. It means that theory is all it is based on. Armchair evidence has no room in the arena of education, where behaviorist insight has clearly improved educational opportunity and outcomes for students demonstrating difficulties in learning. Alfie, we need more than just your word, especially when our childrens' futures are at stake. The three C's may fit Kohn's agenda (and vocabulary), but until he produces some empirical evidence, this book will have to hit the 99 cent rack. Kohn gets one star for actively challenging an accepted behaviorist body of science, but does not follow through on the principle of parsimony, and falls short in evidence. As Paul Simon sings in "The Obvious Child", "proof is the bottom line for everyone." Get some evidence, and better luck next time, Alfie.
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3 von 14 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich Von peggynature am 20. März 2000
Format: Taschenbuch
As quoted by the classic textbook "Behavior Modification: What It Is And How To Do It" by Garry Martin and Joseph Pear -- "Not infrequently, one meets the objection that presenting reinforcement to someone for 'doing what he ought to do anyway' is 'downright bribery.' In a verbal exchange with a teacher, Roger Ulrich (1970, p. 337)...suggested that the teacher look up 'bribery' in the dictionary. Complying, the teacher said, 'Okay, the dictionary says that bribe means "any gift of emolument, used corruptly to influence public or official action, anything that seduces or allures, an allurement. Also any valuable consideration given or promised for corrupt behavior in the performance of official or public duties."' Ulrich then remarked, 'It's quite common for people to refer to reinforcement as bribing, especially when we use it for children. According to the dictionary definition, however, it doesn't seem to fit. It wouldn't seem that our efforts to get Billy to write his numbers better is really an example of trying to get him to do something illegal or something which goes against what is generally looked upon as being acceptable by our culture. Besides, Billy isn't a public official. Actually, writing numbers seems to be a good thing to be able to do and when you do good things, you often get rewarded for them.' Related to the bribery criticism is the frequently voiced criticism that extrinsic reinforcement for a behavior that a person finds (or should find) instrinsically reinforcing will undermine his motivation to engage in that behavior when the extrinsic reinforcement is no longer provided. In discussing this criticism, Kazdin (1975, pp.Lesen Sie weiter... ›
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Amazon.com: 78 Rezensionen
202 von 212 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
Real life experience with Kohn's ideas 22. März 2005
Von Robert M. Madden - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Taschenbuch
So I wanted my students to learn how to read notes on the staff. I had a fun idea to use "notes" to spell words and then the students would decipher the notes to figure out what the words are. I was concerned about them being motivated to do the assignment, so I turned it into a game and use jolly ranchers to reward the team that comes up with the words the fastest. Guess what? As soon as the jolly ranchers were rewarded, the students lost interest. Also, the kids were more concerned about fairness and cheating then the actual activity. More over, certain students took over the competition and other students relied on their already exisiting expertise to win them the jolly rancher.

I tried a different tactic the next period. I decided to promise them the jolly rancher regardless of the outcome, but I still wanted to play the game. I still got much of the same.

That night I picked up this book and read a good deal of it. I decided to put Kohn's ideas to the test. The next day, I pointed the kids to the materials, showed them basically how to do it and set them on their way. No games. No Jolly Ranchers. Nothing. Guess what? All students were learning and involved, students who finished came up to me and asked what to do. They were more than happy to either help other students or figure out more words, or create their own. A complere 180. True, there were plenty who asked, "Do we have to do this?" or "What do we get when we finished?" Which just reinforced for me Kohn's notion that kids have become addicted to rewards.

Does this book show you how? No. Thus the 4 stars and not 5. But it does point you in the right direction.

As for other's assertion that Kohn has oversimplified behaviorism and used research to his own ends: The point isn't whether Kohn has oversimplified it, and Kohn says as much. The point is that the people who are PRACTICING IT AS GOSPEL have oversimplified it. I believe Kohn realizes rewards are necessary, just not the rewards/reinforcement that have been in use. Learning is its own reward. If this wasn't true, why would these people who reviewed the book have read it? Were they paid to read it? Were they promised a pat on the head if they read it? Love is its own reward. Meaningful debate/discussion is its own reward. Generosity is its own reward. Using these as your reinforcers will bring results.

Hope this helped...
212 von 225 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
Caused me to question rewards; still yearn for solutions 25. Januar 2005
Von jasoneducator - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Taschenbuch
I come at this book as an educator and as someone who has spent a lot of time grading students and helping them navigate the treacherous waters of the standardized testing game. This was on the bookshelf of the tutoring center where I work and I thought I'd see what this man's case was.

For the most part, I found this to be an intentional counterbalance to business as usual. It appears that there are a great many reviewers with the psychology background to assess how he may set up BF Skinner as a straw man to strike down. I'm not sure it's necessary to set up Skinner as a man to strike down. I do agree with Kohn, however, that "pop behaviorism" and incentive driven behaviors are pervasive in our culture. Incentive plans in business, grades at school, and rewards at home are commonly thought of strategies for management. Kohn consistently attacks the abuses and excesses of incentives and gives a coherent framework for what makes rewards wrong, focusing on how relationships are fragmented and creativity and attention are undermined. As a teacher who has seen grade obsessed students in tutoring and classroom situations, any book that provides philosophical and psychological research to advocate for intrinsic learning is welcomed.

Readers should be aware that this is a *very* radical book. Like other radicals, Kohn is probably better at ripping down the capitalist, or in this case incentive-based, order than in building something up to replace it with. Kohn wants us to reason with people and clearly communicate agreed upon objectives. Has Kohn ever tried to implement these strategies in a classroom of 35-40 urban students? I believe that he would argue we should have smaller class sizes that we could value intrinsic motivation, but I question whether he would be living in the real world at that point. There are some valuable bullet points in the final 80-100 pages of the book where he advocates for strategies. Maybe his other works go at that side. Fundamentally, though he asks us to get away from our American focus on ends such as profits, grades, and behavioral complicity from our children. That makes this book truly radical and I am still weighing in my own mind how convinced I am about the pragmatic value of this book.

I think this book is valuable reading about the dangers of using rewards without thought for the long-term consequences of those rewards. I caution readers from joining Kohn wholeheartedly for in many ways, he seems to me to be a counterconsultant rather than an established educator with unassailable results or a business leader who has built a business implementing his principles. Now that I think of it, I yearned for the long term narratives of success stories where I could interpret details. He does cite a lot of research studies in support of his views, but I am not enough of a psychologist to ascertain whether I am fully convinced of the value in embracing the risks inherent with embracing his views full force.

Stay tuned. I might edit this one and say this has been a paradigm altering book that leads me away from keeping test prep as part of my personal mission. As it stands, I consider this a book that has helped me by raising some unresolved questions in my mind.

4 stars.

--SD
100 von 106 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
Rewards Backfire 26. Oktober 2001
Von Yolanda Preysner - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Taschenbuch
Punished by Rewards is a thought provoking book written for a general audience that argues that use of rewards undermines efforts to teach students, manage workers, or raise children. About one third of the book is devoted to educational issues, one third to parenting concerns, and one third to business concerns. This review is from an educator's perspective.
In this well-researched book, Alfie Kohn takes on the educational establishment dominated by experts who advise behavioristic classroom management plans. He challenges many current classroom management practices such as the contingent use of stickers, prizes, parties, gold stars, grades, honor rolls, awards assemblies, and praise. Any teacher working on improving classroom management and motivating students will benefit from reading this refreshingly original and persuasive book and will have a new perspective on some entrenched educational practices that often go unquestioned. As the author says, you don't have to accept everything he says to see the value in making some changes.
Kohn's central thesis is that it is misguided for teachers (and parents and bosses also) to rely on extrinsic motivators and reinforcers to assure quiet, orderly classrooms and manipulate students to behave in ways that are for the teacher's convenience. It is well acepted that punishment is not a way to motivate students. He contends that punishment and rewards are merely two sides of the same coin--and the coin doesn't buy much. Both approaches are applied and popularized behaviorism, a theory attributed to B. F. Skinner and his followers. Citing current research, he backs up his idea that rewards only succeed in the short term. Changes usually do not persist when there are no more "goodies" to be won. Many studies he cites show that performance is not improved and may actually be impaired by use of reward strategies.

Rewards fail for five reasons. First, rewards punish and control by seduction. The failure to win a reward or the threat to remove a reward is functionally identical to the threat to employ a punishment. Second, rewards rupture relationships both vertically (student/teacher) and horizontally (student/student). Both rewards and punishment are really about someone maintaining power and control over another and they induce a behavior pattern whereby the subordinate tries to curry favor and impress the rewarder rather than encourage a relationship of trust and openness. Also, rewards lead to destructive competition. Third, employing rewards can change superficial behavior effectively, but it ignores the underlying reasons for the problem behavior and so does not effect long-term change. Rewards are not solutions, they are gimmicks, shortcuts, quick fixes that mask problems. Fourth, rewards discourage risk taking, creativity, and taking on challenges because the task is now just something that stands in the way of gaining the prize. Finally, and most tragically, rewards change the way people approach the task. To reward someone for something that many find intrinsically interesting and enjoy doing is to destroy motivation. For example, the Pizza Hut "Book It" reading incentive and summer library reading incentive programs are, according to Kohn, very destructive. Reading is presented not as a pleasurable experience, but as something one has to be bribed to do with a food reward or other token.
Kohn devotes an entire chapter to the proposition that praise itself can have toxic effects upon the recipient. Praise is often given for the convenience of the praiser and to manipulate the recipient. It can impede performance by signaling low ability, making people feel pressured, inviting a low-risk strategy to avoid failure, and reducing interest in the task itself. Children can be hooked on praise and become too extrinsically motivated, too dependent upon approval from others. Kohn offers five or six solid and practical strategies for employing encouraging words and providing feedback without praising. This chapter of the book is eye opening, especially for parents.
So what is the alternative to manipulation by praise and tangible rewards? That depends upon the goals one wishes to achieve and the problem to be solved. Unlike the behaviorist method, the Kohn method offers no quick, easy solution to classroom management and student motivation problems. To his credit, Kohn devotes the last third of his book to addressing how to get beyond rewards. He fits himself into the constructivist philosophy with his emphasis on learning as discovery, enhancing student control and choice through class meetings, encouraging collaboration and revising content to follow students' natural interests. He points out that young children learn naturally because they are curious about how the world works. They are always seeking to solve their own questions to make sense of their world. Schools need to rethink curriculum and content. Teachers need to rethink whether they really need the control they seek with behavior management plans.
Teachers will find this book very useful. After explaining the theoretical underpinnings of his position, Kohn has many useful examples of the negative results from using reward strategies. Yet Kohn is realistic and recognizes that even if one agrees with him, change will take a long time. He presents many interim strategies teachers can use to reduce the negative impacts of entrenched practices and recognizes that teachers cannot single-handedly effect change if their entire school system depends upon manipulation through rewards. He recognizes that teachers are often judged by their superiors in ways that encourage them to go with the cheap behaviorist tricks that offer temporary solutions. He offers many specific ways teachers can slowly reduce their own dependence on such tactics.
In conclusion, this book offers a useful guide for action for any teacher who recognizes the limitations of the behaviorist methods in place in almost every classroom in America. For those who are unconvinced, Kohn says he'll be satisfied if they are at least questioning their teaching, parenting, or supervising after they close the book. In a sincere yet lighthearted way he invites the reader to "Ride my train as far as you can and get off when you have to. Maybe later you'll hop aboard again, a little closer to'working with' than 'doing to' and we can continue the journey." Interested readers will find it easy to continue journeying with Kohn as he is a prolific author of both books and articles and maintains a website.
30 von 32 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
accurate assessment of the issue 1. November 2006
Von Dr John C. W. Touchie - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Taschenbuch
This is a useful book, summarizing in accurate fashion, the empirical and theoretical literature on the issue of rewards and intrinsic motivation. I can recommend it to those seeking a staring point into the literature.

This, however, is contested by another reviewer, who instead recommends a recent work by Cameron and Pierce.

Unfortunately, the book recommended - written by Cameron and Pierce - is an inaccurate and seriously misleading text on the subject. In a study by the leading researchers in the area of rewards and intrinsic motivation (Deci et al, in the Review of Educational Research, Spring 2001, Vol 71, No 1, pp 1-27 and pp.43-51), the arguments of Cameron and Pierce that inform the analysis of this book were found to (a) use inappropriate control groups, (b) misclassify studies (unsurprisingly, this is always to the benefit of C&P's arguments), (c) use improper measures of intrinsic motivation, (d) include irrelevant experimental conditions and exclude relevant ones, (e) collapsed significantly different experimental conditions without proper moderation (pp. 44).

In short, C&P presented an analysis of data that was "scientifically inappropriate" (p.46) at best, and of questionable motivation at worst (particularly given C&P's apparent inability to learn from their mistakes, or to correct misleading or incorrect statements in work that has stretched over 7 years). Work that massages the data, choosing studies if they support their already formed conclusions and rejecting studies if they go against them, works that ignore large chunks of the argument of researchers who have argued for different conclusions are of little value if you are looking for the facts of the effect of rewards on intrinsic motivation.

You don't have to believe me - have a look for yourself. All of this is documented in a series of debates in The Psychological Bulletin, vol 125, No 6, pp 627-668 for Deci et al's original review, and pp. 692-700 for their critiques of the C&P methodology. Further, these critiques were corroborated by a team of researchers from Stanford University, again, in The Psychological Bulletin, 1999, Vol 125, No 6, 669-676. In a study that supported the findings of Deci et al, from above, the Stanford team stated unequivocally that the method used by C&P

- produces "simplistic overall conclusions" (p.674),

- "tells us essentially nothing about the phenomenon of the actual literature under review [the literature of the effect of rewards on intrinsic motivation, that is]" (p.672),

- that it is precisely the use of this inappropriate method that "produced the anomalous conclusion that negative effects of extrinsic rewards are merely a myth" (pp.672-673).

Hardly a ringing endorsement of the Cameron and Pierce work.

If you want an appropriate reference beyond the Kohn book, my advice would be to start with the Deci et al Review of Educational Research article above. I found it useful and clearly written. I'd advise you to give the Cameron and Pierce's work a miss: from its selective and scientifically inappropriate massaging of the data right down to its conclusions that fly in the face of the "very robust" findings of an intrinsic motivation literature that is now "very large" (from the Deci critique of C&P, p.698, above), it is a seriously misleading body of writing that is likely to confuse even a sophisticated reader.
33 von 37 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
Good subject, but more theory and less practice 8. September 2000
Von T. Schmitt - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format: Taschenbuch
This book is more suited for academic pursuits than a practical guide on how to change your incentive programs.
The book is about 400 pages long, of which 2/3 is spent poking holes against how incentive programs do not work for long term, meaningful behavioral changes. He builds up a great proof. However, if you buy into thesis, you don't need to devle into the bowels of the detailed arguement he presents.
So after the author has you turned around to his point of view, you began to ask, "Then what? What can I change?" It's on this point the author falls short. He has a couple of lame ideas, but no concrete solutions to help you change your actions. His overall solution is to make the job or objective so interesting and challanging that it's unnecessary to bribe. This works for some tasks, but not for others.
Get this book if you're intersted in the subject. However, skip this book if your looking for a practical guide on how to design better incentive programs or how to raise your kids differently.
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