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Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness [Kindle Edition]

Richard H. Thaler , Cass R. Sunstein
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Produktbeschreibungen

Pressestimmen

"Fundamentally changes the way I think about the world. . . . Academics aren't supposed to be able to write this well." —Steven Levitt, co-author of Freakonomics

"[An] utterly brilliant book. . . . Nudge won't nudge you-it will knock you off your feet." —Daniel Gilbert, author of Stumbling on Happiness

"Nudge is as important a book as any I've read in perhaps twenty years. It is a book that people interested in any aspect of public policy should read. It is a book that people interested in politics should read. It is a book that people interested in ideas about human freedom should read. It is a book that people interested in promoting human welfare should read. If you're not interested in any of these topics, you can read something else." —Barry Schwartz, The American Prospect

"This book is terrific. It will change the way you think, not only about the world around you and some of its bigger problems, but also about yourself." —Michael Lewis, author of Moneyball

Kurzbeschreibung

For fans of Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink and Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman’s Thinking Fast and Slow, a revelatory new look at how we make decisions



More than 750,000 copies sold



A New York Times bestseller

An Economist Best Book of the Year

A Financial Times Best Book of the Year




Nudge is about choices—how we make them and how we can make better ones. Drawing on decades of research in the fields of behavioral science and economics, authors Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein offer a new perspective on preventing the countless mistakes we make—ill-advised personal investments, consumption of unhealthy foods, neglect of our natural resources—and show us how sensible “choice architecture” can successfully nudge people toward the best decisions. In the tradition of The Tipping Point and Freakonomics, Nudge is straightforward, informative, and entertaining—a must-read for anyone interested in our individual and collective well-being.

Produktinformation

  • Format: Kindle Edition
  • Dateigröße: 859 KB
  • Seitenzahl der Print-Ausgabe: 324 Seiten
  • ISBN-Quelle für Seitenzahl: 014311526X
  • Verlag: Penguin Books; Auflage: Revised & Expanded (24. Februar 2009)
  • Verkauf durch: Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
  • Sprache: Englisch
  • ASIN: B00A5DCALY
  • Text-to-Speech (Vorlesemodus): Aktiviert
  • X-Ray:
  • Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: 5.0 von 5 Sternen  Alle Rezensionen anzeigen (2 Kundenrezensionen)
  • Amazon Bestseller-Rang: #123.289 Bezahlt in Kindle-Shop (Siehe Top 100 Bezahlt in Kindle-Shop)

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Format:Taschenbuch|Verifizierter Kauf
Nudge is very popular in current public policy making, for good reason. The idea of nudging is nothing less that good economics: taking into account small non-monetary costs. I recommend that this book be read together with or after 'Thinking fast and slow' by Daniel Kahneman, as it borrows on some of the ideas explored there.
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0 von 2 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen Super 16. Mai 2014
Format:Taschenbuch|Verifizierter Kauf
Es war sehr schnell, das Buch war wohlbehalten und billig.... Ich bin 100% zufrieden. :-) :-) :-) :-) :-) :-)
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Amazon.com: 3.6 von 5 Sternen  138 Rezensionen
350 von 420 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen The elephant in the room. 23. März 2008
Von D. Stuart - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe
Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein are both professors at the University of Chicago and where the Chicago school was once famous for the Milton Friedman doctrine of free markets (look where they've got us today!) Thaler and now his Law professor friend Cass Sunstein have swung the pendulum the other way.

Here in Nudge, they argue that totally free markets can lead to disasters precisely because human individuals are not actually very good decision-makers. As Behavioural Economists (Kahneman & Tversky Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases- who credited Thaler as being a key inspiration - and Dan Ariely, whose Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions has become a best seller) argue, we are riddled with little psychological tics in our decision-making processes. We buy things, then suffer remorse. We get confused by choices and often make no choice at all.

But where Ariely keeps his discourse in the world of the day to day, Thaler and Sunstein develop an argument that is political - and is bound to cause heated debate. What they argue is that, in the face of our decision-making weaknesses, Governments and Businesses can help "nudge" us in the right direction. The elephant in the room can be benign.

They call their viewpoint `libertarian paternalism' and what they argue is that it would be a good thing for some gentle nudging of the citizenry in the right direction. As Thaler said recently in the New York Times: "In light of human limitations, Cass Sunstein and I argue for policies that we call libertarian paternalism. Although the phrase sounds like an oxymoron, we contend that it is often possible to design policies, in both the public and private sector, that make people better off -- as judged by themselves -- without coercion. We oppose bans; instead, we favor nudges."

How does a Government do this without imposing laws and edicts. A primary argument is that defaults can be set that counter the tendency by humans to procrastinate or make no decision. One example is the Save More Tomorrow Plan which Thaler developed back in 1996 as an employer sponsored retirement plan for employees. Instead of presenting the details and asking employees to consciously sign-up to increase their savings each time they got a pay rise, the plan presented the details and asked employees to basically check the box if they wished in future to automatically increase their savings as their pay went up. To pre-commit. Such schemes have proved very successful, yet they offer the same free choice, though with a different default.

As Thaler argues: "Since it is often impossible for private and public institutions to avoid picking some option as the default, why not pick one that is helpful?"

Another form of nudge might be the act of disclosure. Thaler & Sunstein argue, for example that credit card companies should issue annual statements that tell us how much we've spent this year on late fees and interest. Again: we have the complete freedom to use cards as we want, but the additional information may help us reframe our own spending strategies. Or how about stickers on new cars that show how much gasoline each vehicle would burn over the next 5 years under typical usage. Hold that Hummer.

These are examples of what the authors call helpful "choice architecture." Nice phrase. The architecture puts our options on more clear display.

I must say, I like the thinking here, and it gives credence to agent-based simulation modelling I've carried out whereby small changes can lead to big effects.

But this volume is about more than modelling and mere theory. One cannot help but think that the book has been timed to coincide with the meltdown of the present economy. The free market, the totally free market, the authors implicitly argue, needs quite a nudge itself. Rather than seeking highly regulated solutions, the better response might simply be a series of tweaks to the choice architecture that influences our spending, saving, health care and borrowing patterns.

The authors present a clear argument and no doubt it will cause heated and lively debate. This book has landed like a rock, right into the centre of the current and somewhat stagnant economic pond. It will definitely cause ripples. Well worth reading.
82 von 96 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
1.0 von 5 Sternen A little of everything, and therefore unfortunately not much of anything 4. November 2010
Von Amazon Customer - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Kindle Edition|Verifizierter Kauf
This book covers a lot of ground, and none of it is covered with any rigour or depth.

There are occasional interesting pieces of insight - for example, if you want people to reduce their energy usage, it may be enough to tell above-average users that they are in that category - below-average users, not so much, they may then use more energy - but you can counter this by a nice smiley emoticon next to where that fact is displayed (implying they're doing a great thing by using less energy) and their usage will stay low.

The problem is, to gain these nice pieces of insight, I had to dig through much much more content that was not covered well.

Here are some of the the things you'll find in this book

- A superficial review of psychology research concerning a few factors on how people make choices (For example, too many choices lead to overwhelm and bad decisions. Another example - people can be influenced to make a bad decision if others around them are making bad decisions).
- A explanation of how people can be helped to make good choices, for example with food, by where food is placed on store shelves (e.g. at eye level vs not).
- Many many pages of excruciating detail on why choices of medical insurance plans can be a complex and painful process. Ditto for how the complexity of investing can lead to bad investment choices. None of this is original.
- A fairly basic solution proposed to complexity of choices - regulations to require providers to provide information on the implications of their choices - for example, lenders should provide documentation of the implications of a given choice of loan - what you'd end up paying over time (not just at the time of initial "special deals") and what the worst case scenario would imply in terms of costs for you. This information, the authors advise, should not be buried in the fine print. Very very obvious stuff.
- A chapter on making organ donation to be opt-out instead of opt-in. One of the better chapters, with some evidence given of it having worked in some countries. But could have been dealt with in a few paragraphs, did not need to be stretched to a chapter (admittedly a short chapter).
- Some attempts at philosophical argument for why governments should be allowed to "nudge" people to better choices, but not done to any depth or rigour.
- Several side comments that did not provide any new insights - for example, that the principle of what actions are being taken by those in authority should be transparent might have prevented the atrocities at Abu Ghraib. Again, nothing original here.
- Several trite pieces of advice about how publicising a commitment you've made (e.g. to lose weight) and setting up disincentives for failure (e.g. a certain amount of money to be donated to a cause you disapprove of) can help you achieve the goal. Again, nothing new here.
- A more reasonable chapter on privatizing marriage - the goal being to allow religious groups to endorse marriages based on their convictions, but for all partnerships to be granted equal legal status. Not really related to the concept of nudging though, and drawn out and padded with sociological thoughts on what function marriage has historically served, which does not seem to be the authors' field of expertise.
- Random pieces of advice such as permitting motorcycle riders to not wear helmets if they take extra training and show evidence of medical insurance. If I could be sure that they are also paying higher insurance premiums I might not be too annoyed at that one, but the authors don't venture into this area of discussion so again I felt their treatment of this topic was incomplete.
- A recommendation that the Social Security Administration assist those claiming benefits by making more clear at what age you should start collecting the benefits if you want to obtain the maximum amount of money by it (allowing for things like, maybe I'm ok with less money if I want it sooner). Having a payer assist a payee in taking maximum advantage is nice and altruistic, good luck with getting that happening.

Overall it felt like the authors had a collection of unrelated instances of advice that they were trying to force to fit the concept of a "nudge".

If you are interested in this kind of content from a psychology viewpoint, read Freakonomics (Dubner and Levitt), Predictably Irrational (Ariely), Influence (Cialdini), Tipping Point (Gladwell). For the investment advice and bits of self-help associated with that, David Bach does a better job in his various books.
105 von 131 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen Important for medical decisions as well 31. März 2008
Von Alan Schwartz - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe
"Buy on apples, sell on cheese" is an old proverb among wine merchants. Taking a bite of an apple before tasting wine makes it easier to detect flaws in the wine, and the buyer who does so will not as easily make the mistake of paying more than the wine is worth. Cheese, on the other hand, pairs well with wine and enhances its flavor, so a seller who offers cheese may command a higher price for the wine (and may even deserve it, if the wine is intended to be drunk with cheese).

The proverb captures important psychological nuances of choice. The same product - a bottle of wine or a risky medical procedure - may be perceived differently depending on its context, and it is often possible to arrange the context to influence a choice while still maintaining the decision maker's autonomy.

The practice of structuring choices is called "choice architecture" in a brilliant and important new book, Nudge, by University of Chicago Distinguished Professors Richard Thaler (Business) and Cass Sunstein (Law). Nudge lays out the groundwork for the science of choice architecture in investing, insurance, health care delivery, and other areas, and argues for a "libertarian paternalism" in which choices are structured to make it more likely that a decision maker will select what is considered the most beneficial option, without impairing the ability to decision makers to select other options. For example, making enrollment in 401(k) plans automatic for new employees, with a form for opting out, is likely to result in greater retirement savings than an opt-in system, without limiting anyone's freedom to choose.

Thaler and Sunstein apply the principles of choice architecture to a few problems in health care (How could Medicare part D be improved? How can organ donation rates be increased? Why shouldn't patients be allowed to waive their right to sue for medical negligence in return for cheaper health care?) But the concepts in the book go beyond their specific examples and could prove very useful to practicing clinicians, who, they note, are often in the position of being choice architects for their patients.

Their principles of choice architecture (paraphrased by me and focused on physicians helping patients make decisions) are:

* Make sure incentives are aligned with desired outcomes
* Help patients map outcomes of different alternatives into formats they can understand (a major focus of Medical Decision Making as well)
* Arrange default options to favor better health. Pediatricians have done a good job of making vaccination a default option.
* Provide timely and relevant feedback about choices and outcomes. A patient seeking to lose weight needs to experience feedback in the form of measurable progress soon enough that they are not discouraged.
* Expect error and develop systems to prevent, detect, and minimize it. For example, pill cases and inhalers with dosage counters are simple and valuable ways to reduce the frequent errors people make in remembering medication. Psychological research provides direction as to what kinds of errors are to be expected when people are making decisions.
* Structure complex choices to reduce the difficulty of making good decisions. In many ways, that's what medical decision making -- and Medical Decision Making -- is about.

I highly recommend Nudge. It's a great read, and has the potential to change the way you think about clinical practice and medical decisions.
40 von 51 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
3.0 von 5 Sternen A little dense and not my cup of tea 22. Mai 2008
Von Ken Montville - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe|Verifizierter Kauf
The sub title of the book "Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth and Happiness" should have been a hint at what the book was really about which is "choice architecture" a way to further "libertarian paternalism" meaning that if choices are presented to you in a certain way, you'll make better choices and it'll seem like you're making the choice of your own free will instead of being "nudged" into making the "right" choice.

I'm a big fan of learning why we make the types of choices we make and possibly how to influence those choices. I'm also a big fan of learning how to make better choices for myself.

This book, however, leans heavily to the public policy side of things like how to get people to choose more wisely for retirement savings and the like. It really isn't about Health, Wealth and Happiness. It's about creating systems to "nudge" people into making choices they might not otherwise make.
54 von 71 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
1.0 von 5 Sternen A Case for Elitist Manipulation and Exploitation 28. Juli 2011
Von non-compliant - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Taschenbuch
This book is an unequivocal "dummies' guide" to how current power structures use unconscious manipulation for various forms of social control. Though many of the examples provided to articulate the book's fundamental ideas seem trivial and benign, one mustn't put forth much effort to extrapolate how the widespread apathy, misinformation, and malleability needed in order to 'Nudge' citizens toward more 'automated' decisions or outcomes presupposes a highly complacent and disengaged population. Moreover, the authors not only seem contented with fostering the easily exploitable human characteristics which lead to automated decision making, but have the gall to say that it is in our (we, the general, non-elite, decision-ratifying populace) best interest. So long as the real decision making 'Econs' - i.e. the social, political, economic, and academic elite - are the ones nudging us plebeians towards choices deemed acceptable for us, all is well, calm, and as it should be.

There is, of course, an alternative narrative that can be constructed, namely one that portrays our tendency towards unreflective (re)actions and hierarchical subjugation as categorically negative; one that does not perceive a condescending analysis of how humans (besides the authors and their peers presumably) make decisions as quaint or endearing. The only problem with this narrative is that it doesn't coincide with the current power structures that Sunstein and Thaler are apart of, and wont serve to profit the advertising and PR industries billions of dollars a years.

Worth reading if you're unfamiliar with why current sociopolitical/economic trends are steamrolling forward with little to no resistance. If that is something you're already educated on and are not interested in its perpetuation, then I can comfortably suggest you apply your time, money, and, most importantly, intellect elsewhere.
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