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Nazis, Islamists, and the Making of the Modern Middle East (Englisch) Gebundene Ausgabe – 4. März 2014

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  • Gebundene Ausgabe: 340 Seiten
  • Verlag: Yale Univ Pr (4. März 2014)
  • Sprache: Englisch
  • ISBN-10: 0300140908
  • ISBN-13: 978-0300140903
  • Größe und/oder Gewicht: 15,6 x 2,5 x 23,5 cm
  • Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: 3.5 von 5 Sternen  Alle Rezensionen anzeigen (2 Kundenrezensionen)
  • Amazon Bestseller-Rang: Nr. 182.000 in Fremdsprachige Bücher (Siehe Top 100 in Fremdsprachige Bücher)

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"This book is a model of original research and the ultimate scholarly study of German-Arab and German-Muslim cooperation during the first half of the twentieth century, covering both World Wars. It is a major contribution in the field, a magnum opus."-Jacob M. Landau, Hebrew University of Jerusalem -- Jacob M. Landau "This book presents an abundance of previously un- or under examined material. It is most impressive and greatly advances our knowledge."-Jeffrey Herf, University of Maryland -- Jeffrey Herf "In this hugely important book Barry Rubin and Wolfgang G. Schwanitz show that not only did Nazism enjoy widespread popularity in the contemporary Middle East, but its profound effects on pan-Arabist and Islamist thinking, as well as the evolution of Palestinian Arab nationalism, continue to reverberate throughout the region to date. A must read."-Efraim Karsh, King's College London -- Efraim Karsh "Rubin and Schwanitz have done a major, double service - by tracing the historical links between Islamist jihadism and German policy from the Wilhelmine to the Nazi eras; and by highlighting the common (anti-democratic, anti-liberal and anti-Semitic) ideological basis of Nazism and Islamism during the Second World War. The center-piece of their study is the description of the mid-20th century alliance between the Nazis and militant Arab nationalists, which still affects current Middle Eastern politics and policies."-Benny Morris, author of One State, Two States -- Benny Morris "Nazis, Islamists and the Making of the Modern Middle East is a welcome addition to the short list of indispensable books on the Arab-Israeli conflict. We owe a great debt to Barry Rubin and to Wolfgang G. Schwanitz for revealing an urgent story the international community should have known but somehow missed -- a story that is a key to understanding how we got to this current moment in the Middle East."-Yossi Klein Halevi, Shalom Hartman Institute -- Yossi Klein Halevi "Thoroughly researched and closely argued."-David Pryce-Jones, National Review -- David Pryce-Jones National Review "The odd-couple marriage between Nazis and Arab nationalists has come under increasingly revealing scrutiny over the last decade. Here, fresh research from previously unexamined archives explicitly ties that frightening nexus to today's Middle East."-Gene Santoro, World War II magazine -- Gene Santoro World War II magazine "This book tells a remarkable and-to me at least-little known but very important story."-Marshall Poe, New Books in History -- Marshall Poe New Books in History

Über den Autor und weitere Mitwirkende

Barry Rubin is director of the Global Research in International Affairs Center of the Interdisciplinary Center, Israel. He is the author of many books and publishes frequently on Middle East topics. He lives in Tel Aviv, Israel. Middle East historian Wolfgang G. Schwanitz is visiting professor at the Global Research in International Affairs Center of the Interdisciplinary Center, Israel, and an associate fellow at the Middle East Forum of Pennsylvania. He lives in New Jersey.

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Format: Gebundene Ausgabe
Well researched and we'll articulated. There are many interesting revaluation and findings that illuminate the realities then and now.

Perhaps the most reliable way to assess the accuracy of a historical review is to see if it can (or could have in the past) serve as a compass and an indicator toward future events. As they say, history does repeat itself. This body of work certainly meets this criteria - it creates a blue print that could have predicted the rise of the political Islam in its current form and other trends in the region. Highly recommended.
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0 von 4 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich Von Dr. Ludwig Watzal am 26. Februar 2014
Format: Gebundene Ausgabe
There has been an intense collaboration and cooperation between Nazi Germany and the Islamists forces like the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt that determined the course of events in the Middle East till today. These forces not only collaborated with the Nazi regime but they also provided Thousands of Nazis with a safe haven after the war.

The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Amin Al-Husaini, was a Jew hater and an advocate of Islamist radicalism who spent the war years in Berlin where he lived in luxury. He was the central figure who supported Hitler in his evil and sinister crime against European Jewry. In return, Hitler promised the Mufti that the extermination of Jews in Palestine would start as soon as Rommel would arrive there.

The authors, Barry Rubin and Wolfgang Schwanitz, came up with new archive material that inspired them to formulate very provocative and highly problematic theses. They make astonishing and weird claims: For them, Al-Husaini was the supposed architect of the “Final Solution”. They argue that the mufti had such great influence that he might have well authored the mass murder of Jews of Europe. That the mufti was the string-puller behind Hitler is outlandish.

They want to show that “eliminationist anti-Semitism” drives the Islamic Middle East, and that Al-Husaini was worst than Hitler. Consequently its influence on Islamist movements is also exaggerated, such as the Muslim Brotherhood. “When Islamism revived in the 1970s, its ideology bore the mark of al-Husaini and the other wartime collaborators, especially the Muslim Brotherhood.” The authors show the apparent great influence of German Nazis in almost all Arab countries.
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Die hilfreichsten Kundenrezensionen auf (beta) 13 Rezensionen
18 von 21 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
Hajj Amin and Associates: Connections 5. März 2014
Von L. King - Veröffentlicht auf
Format: Gebundene Ausgabe
A detailed assessment of the relationship between Nazi Germany and the Arab Nationalist movement in Palestine. The story begins even before WW I. German adventurer/scholars such as Max von Oppenheim and Carl H. Becker are backed by the German government to create a program of Islamic propaganda to generate uprisings that would weaken Germany's European rivals by destroying their colonial influence. By funding cultural centers throughout the middle east they exposed the locals to a variety of materials, both written and visual, advocating attacks against Christians and European infidels. In the short term this policy failed. The Germans misunderstood the lack of resonance the Ottoman Sultan and the Sheich ul-Islam had given that the Islamic world was fragmented into both Shia and Sunni as well as a number of different legalistic and traditional schools. The Allies countered by promising political independence after a preliminary period of guidance and development which stoked the national ambitions of Arabs, Greeks and Jews. However the German strategy worked in Russia where German backing of the Bolsheviks led to the collapse of the Russian front in WW I and it misfired horribly with the Armenian genocide.

These assets, relationships and strategies were picked up again on the eve of WW II and many of the same players used in the last round were redeployed in service of the Nazis.

Meanwhile in Palestine the authors take a brief look at the career of Hajj Amin al-Husaini who came to prominence in the 1920s and 30s. Most of this has been covered in better detail elsewhere but what is new here is evidence that at the end of WW I in 1917 operating out of Damascus he had acted as a double agent for the English and later for the French. Nor were his ambitions limited to Palestine - between 1918 and 1920 he worked for the General Syrian Congress as a lobbyist for an enlarged Syrian state including today's Jordan, Lebanon, Israel and the Palestinian territories with the Faisal as King. Beyond his connections as a member of one of Jerusalem's leading Arab families and in spite of his conviction the previous year for instigating the Nabi Musa riots and lack of religious qualifications, his family was able to convince the British to name him "Grand Mufti" of Jerusalem (which he later changed to "Palestine") and place him as head of the newly created Supreme Muslim Council who's sinecures provided him with both income and power base for years to come. Surprisingly the book skips over the 1929 riots, but instead focuses on his networking skills, his travels from India to Iran, and Egypt to Berlin along with his creation of the World Islamic Congress in 1931, with himself at the helm, with an impressive list of contacts including then current and future Islamic leadership.

Contrary to what has been written in other reviews, the authors do not portray Hajj Amin al-Husaini as the architect of the Final Solution or responsible for conditions that led to the creation of Israel. However, they argue, by making his alliance and (in Nazi eyes) the alliance of the Arab world conditional on stopping Jewish immigration to Palestine, a ploy his Arab Higher Committee also offered to the British, he was likely the catalyst in the change of German policy from expulsion to extermination. Backed generously by the Nazis he and Rashid al-Kalaini ran espionage and recruitment networks. Hitler made it clear that after a Nazi victory al-Kalaini, the lesser partner, would be given control of Iraq and that al-Husaini not only Palestine but much of the Arab world (with a degree of imprecision excluding territories promised to Italy and Vichy France), with a license to do to the Jews there what Hitler was doing in Europe - this they had as a common interest. They were also quite prolific in creating general propaganda and training material for military imams articulating a common ground between Islam and National Socialism, (pp182-183), even to the point of mixing Islamic eschatology and Nazi ideology by portraying the current war as the final jihad between Muslims and non-believers. (pp156).

Though he was well connected for the purposes of espionage and propaganda the Germans overestimated the Mufti's ability to deliver Muslim leaders to the Nazi side - with the exception of Jordan's King Abdallah most were interested but were waiting for decisive Nazi victories before they would be willing to switch sides. As a consequence the Arab nations proved to be poor partners for the Allies - for example the 1941 Iraqi revolt led by Rashid al-Kailani, and in Egypt the pro-Nazi sentiment ran so high as Rommel approached in 1942 the British found it necessary to demobilize and disarm most of the Egyptian troops.

After the war al-Husaini's influence continued, facilitating contacts and employment for former Nazis in Arab military, intelligence or propaganda portfolios, publishing his own Jerusalem newspaper al-Jihad and a joint publication in Damascus with the Muslim Brotherhood. So safe was the Arab world for some 4000 Nazi collaborators seeking refuge, not one was given up for prosecution. He continued to run the World Islamic Congress which gave him political access to Arab and Muslim leadership and standing within the Unaligned Nations movement while running secret terrorist cells that operated out of Jordan and Lebanon.

The authors conclude with a look at the Mufti's relationship with Arafat. Though al-Hussaini fully endorsed his successor and is remembered fondly to this day, the relationship divided on Arafat's decision to seek Soviet support rather than to continue with the backing of the Saudis and the Muslim Brotherhood, however this is understandable given the eclipse of religion by populist revolutionary Arab nationalism until the 1990s. On the surface, they observed "it may seem peculiar that al-Husaini was revered rather than discredited" given his Nazi links, his failure to prevent the formation of Israel and his campaigns of terror and assassination direct against his Arab rivals but it made sense in a world of conspiracy oriented authoritarian regimes where strident militancy rather than compromise and accommodation would be the test for legitimacy. Hajj Amin survived, often at the expense of more moderate opponents. The lessons were not lost on his successors.
8 von 10 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
the elephant wears a swastika 17. Mai 2014
Von yoelarry - Veröffentlicht auf
Format: Kindle Edition Verifizierter Kauf
Anyone who does not know the Nazi-Islam connection and the influence of the Nazi collaborationist and co-author of the European Holocaust, Arafat's distant uncle the Mufti of Jerusalem, has no understanding of the Arab-Israeli conflict. The Palestinian leadership and Arab States are still today continuing in Hitler's uncompromising goal of the annihilation of world Jewry. Failure to understand this fundamental truth is like failing to understand that the sun rises in the East. This undeniable truth is the elephant in the room.
And the elephant wears a swastika !
3 von 4 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
Why the Israel Palestinian negotiations are a waste of time 8. Juni 2014
Von mtp - Veröffentlicht auf
Format: Kindle Edition Verifizierter Kauf
The book rehearses the history of the Palestinian involvement in the run up to the second world war and in the war itself on the side of the Nazis. It covers the agreement between the Nazis and the representative of the Palestinians for control of the Middle East and a complete removal of all Jews in an Arab/German killing of the Jews of Palestine. The book provides evidence that this policy continued thru Arafat and to the present. Our Presidents and diplomats (assuming that the author hasn't invented all his evidence) are therefore deluding themselves that a settlement is possible and that Israel is at fault for lack of progress.
2 von 3 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
Important History of 20th century Middle East Geopolitics 7. September 2014
Von Harold Reisman - Veröffentlicht auf
Format: Gebundene Ausgabe Verifizierter Kauf
Magnificent analysis and discussion of history that has been neglected or purposely hidden. This is a factual account that does much to expose revisionism or pure censorship. There is an excellent analysis to the 1930 efforts (mostly by the British) to gain Muslim support in the coming war. Everything was offered - even in violation of the Balfour Declaration and League of Nations directives - to Muslim states and so much was offered that the existing states agreed but Haj Amin al-Huseini would not agree and many Muslims sided with Hitler. There is a direct line between the history of the 20th century concerning the Middle East and current efforts to force some sort of "peaceful agreement". This book sheds light but, sadly, there are many who prefer the darkness.
9 von 14 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
Who's on First? Hitler, al-Husaini, or Muhammad? 3. Februar 2014
Von William Garrison Jr. - Veröffentlicht auf
Format: Gebundene Ausgabe Verifizierter Kauf
Following are a few brief excerpts from a lengthy book review published in the 3 Feb 2014 on-line "Tablet Magazine" by David Mikics: "Did Zionism Cause the Holocaust?":

"... Rubin and Schwanitz make the astonishing claim that al-Husaini is nothing less than the architect of the Final Solution.... The claim that al-Husaini was the hidden hand behind Adolf Hitler is implausible.... Rubin and Schwanitz are historians with a political agenda: They want to show that eliminationist anti-Semitism animates the Islamic Middle East, and so they paint al-Husaini as so devilishly anti-Semitic that he can contend with Hitler himself....

"Al-Husaini met often with Eichmann and Himmler during his tours of occupied Poland, and he helped Eichmann escape to Argentina after the war....

"Where Rubin and Schwanitz depart from the known historical record is in their dubious causal assertion that Hitler's commitment to al-Husaini to keep Jews out of Palestine was in turn a major motivation for the fuehrer's decision, sometime in 1941, to exterminate European Jewry. It's true, as Rubin and Schwanitz make clear, that the mufti advocated genocide against the Jews even before Hitler did....

"Yet it is also a fact that sympathy with the Nazis runs deep in the Arab world. Even now, the mufti's closeness to Hitler increases rather than diminishes his reputation....

"Despite the overblown claims for the mufti's central role, Rubin and Schwanitz do an illuminating job showing the extent of the partnership between Germans and Islamists; this is by far the best part of their book. Germany had a long history of encouraging Jihadism even before Hitler's rise to power. ... The German connection does not explain Islamic radicalism; it remains part of the background....

"Rubin and Schwanitz present their book as a necessary look back at the past that helps us understand the present, but the present needs a more careful analysis, one that pays serious attention to today's bewildering, strife-ridden Middle East....

"The Nazi-Islamist connection doesn't explain the staying power of Middle East extremism. What we need to grasp instead is why, despite the hopes aroused by the Arab Spring, the alternatives to extremism in the Middle East remain so weak."

[Note: One of the co-authors, Mr. Rubin, died on 2 Feb 2014.]

I believe that the answer to the "why" can be found in the anti-Jewish thoughts of the Muslim prophet Muhammad in Mr. Robert Spencer's books: "The Truth About Muhammad" and "The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam."
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