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Natural Experiments of History [Englisch] [Taschenbuch]

Jared Diamond , James A. Robinson

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Kurzbeschreibung

1. April 2011
Some central questions in the natural and social sciences can't be answered by controlled laboratory experiments, often considered to be the hallmark of the scientific method. This impossibility holds for any science concerned with the past. In addition, many manipulative experiments, while possible, would be considered immoral or illegal. One has to devise other methods of observing, describing, and explaining the world. In the historical disciplines, a fruitful approach has been to use natural experiments or the comparative method. This book consists of eight comparative studies drawn from history, archeology, economics, economic history, geography, and political science. The studies cover a spectrum of approaches, ranging from a non-quantitative narrative style in the early chapters to quantitative statistical analyses in the later chapters. The studies range from a simple two-way comparison of Haiti and the Dominican Republic, which share the island of Hispaniola, to comparisons of 81 Pacific islands and 233 areas of India. The societies discussed are contemporary ones, literate societies of recent centuries, and non-literate past societies. Geographically, they include the United States, Mexico, Brazil, western Europe, tropical Africa, India, Siberia, Australia, New Zealand, and other Pacific islands. In an Afterword, the editors discuss how to cope with methodological problems common to these and other natural experiments of history.

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Natural Experiments of History + The World Until Yesterday: What Can We Learn from Traditional Societies? + The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal (P.S.)
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Natural Experiments of History is a short book packed with huge ideas. Its collected essays advocate how controlled experiments can be applied to the messy realities of human history, politics, culture, economics and the environment. It demonstrates productive interdisciplinary collaborations but also reveals gulfs between different cultures of academia...All of the essays in Natural Experiments of History will trigger debate. -- Jon Christensen Nature 20100325 This ambitious, at times challenging, book aspires to contribute new ways of historical thinking and historical research by drawing attention, on the one hand, to the similarities between science (including social sciences) and history, and on the other, by using social sciences methods, especially statistical analysis, to study history. The editors argue that though the difference between studies of nature and human history is obvious, there are clear overlaps. They can be viewed through studying comparative history or by conducting "natural experiments of history" and analyzing the "perturbations" and their causes (exogenous or endogenous) in the involved cases. The book offers a broad array of case studies to illustrate and explain the argument, ranging from nonliterate to contemporary societies and from the U.S., Canada, and Mexico to Brazil, India, and tropical Africa. The comparative methods showcased are quite versatile, from two-way to multiple-way comparisons. All the case studies are interesting and help demonstrate how, via comparative study, one society's, region's, or country's situation is better displayed and explained by juxtaposing it with other, similar ones. A useful read in macro, global history. -- Q. E. Wang Choice 20101101 Natural Experiments of History is a thought-provoking collection of essays that covers an impressive array of topics and would make an excellent text for a course on comparative studies of human history." -- Thomas E. Currie Cliodynamics

Über den Autor und weitere Mitwirkende

Jared Diamond is Professor of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles. His books include Guns, Germs, and Steel. James A. Robinson is Professor of Government, Harvard University.

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Amazon.com: 4.2 von 5 Sternen  11 Rezensionen
85 von 86 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
4.0 von 5 Sternen Dry, but worth the read if you're into the subject matter. 5. Januar 2010
Von Don Hogle - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe|Verifizierter Kauf
Jared Diamond has written brilliant books (Guns, Germs and Steel; Collapse; The Third Chimpanzee among others) that triangulate data from an array of different fields to reach conclusions about our history on this planet. His belief in that methodology for understanding our species and our history is what is at the heart of this collection of essays, which he edited along with a colleague. Indeed, the book is a defense of those methodologies.

Some of the essays are more interesting than others: notable is the one which quantitatively correlates the extent of the slave trade in various African countries with the state of their modern-day economic development (or rather, the lack thereof.)

It's a bit of a dry read -- in some essays more than in others. But if this methodology for understanding our past interests you, it's worth the read.
77 von 83 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
3.0 von 5 Sternen Interesting, but not a typical Diamond book. 1. März 2010
Von A. Rubin - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe
I am a huge fan of Collapse and Guns, Germs, and Steel, and also enjoyed The Third Chimpanzee. Am eagerly awaiting the follow-up to Collapse.

This book is a collection of 7 essays, most of which are quite dry and academic. Definitely not as readable as the books I mentioned above.

Diamond co-wrote the prologue (which is mostly a summary of the book's contents) and afterword. He also authored (alone) one chapter, which is a comparison of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Specifically, he examines why Haiti and the DR have turned out so differently, despite the fact that they share the same island. Much of this is discussed also in his book Collapse, but the chapter is still very interesting.

Another chapter (by Kirch) compares a few different Polynesian islands, to try and discover which variables led to different political histories. Some areas of the world discussed in other chapters are: West Africa, India, and the western US, among a couple of others. Some of these chapters are more interesting than others. None is probably as readable as Diamond's own.

This is definitely not a light read, and it is not something that most people will read cover to cover. An important book for the academic community perhaps, but not for the average reader (like me). Overall kind of boring.
30 von 34 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen Natural experiments in history 14. März 2010
Von Stephen J. Wylie - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe|Verifizierter Kauf
Natural experiments in history is a fascinating set of essays looking at seven historical "experiments". Each chapter has a different author who presents the reader with a wealth of information of their subject of expertise. The writing styles vary, as expected, from author to author. Jared Diamond's chapter on the origin of the differences between Haiti and the Dominican republic, and on different Pacific Islands is the highlight of the book and I wondered why the entire book wasn't on these topics. The chapter on Politics and Banking was less stimulating to me. Of course, the real value of these lessons of history is their application today. We seem destined to repeat the mistakes over and over. I fully recommend this to anyone interested in reasons why societies rise and fall.
14 von 14 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
4.0 von 5 Sternen Interesting But Uneven 24. Juli 2010
Von R. Albin - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe
This is an interesting book on theme of comparative analysis in historical studies. There are 7 chapters describing specific comparative studies; Patrick Kirch on the evolution of Polynesian societies, James Belich on frontier societies, Stephen Haber on the development of banking systems in selected Western Hemisphere nations, Jared Diamond on Haiti vs the Dominican Republic and Pacific island societies, Nathan Nunn on the long term effects of the African slave trade, Banerjee and Iyer on the long term consequences of Indian colonial land tenure systems, and Acemoglu et al on the effects of the Napoleonic conquest of parts of Germany. Most of these chapters are summaries of previously published research. There are essentially 2 major themes. One, exemplified in the chapters by Belich and Acemoglu et al,is an effort to find common underlying structures by use of comparisons. A second, and generally more robust theme, is use of comparisons is to identify contingent features that result in marked differences in present day outcomes. In his comparison of Haiti and the Dominican Republic and what led to the marked differences in present day economic status, for example, Diamond points to differences in geography and ecology but also to marked differences in the behavior of the 2 major 20th century dictators, Duvalier and Trujillo.

The chapters vary somewhat in quality. Chapters by Kirch and Belich are really brief summaries of a large body of prior work. They are interesting but insufficiently detailed though they have excellent bibliographies. The Nunn chapter is most interesting part of this book. Nunn uses a careful accounting of the regional distribution of the African slave trade to assess the long term effects of the slave trade on African economic development. Nunn makes a very creditable argument that the slave trade not only negatively impacted African development but accounts for a large component of the economic discrepancy between Africa and the rest of the world. This is a remarkable result. A less impressive analysis is that of Acemoglu et al on the effects of the Napoleonic occupation of parts of Germany. Acemoglu et al argue that French occupation eliminated traditional legal codes and barriers to economic development, facilitating economic modernization. The analysis does show a modest effect of French occupation. A point on which they don't comment is the bigger effect of being part of Prussia, not surprising given the historic commitment of the Prussian monarchy to development and subordination of traditional institutions.

An important point made by several of the authors is the importance of interdisciplinary approaches. While some of the authors are looking for underlying common features, more than anything else, these chapters emphasize the importance of careful, systematic analysis of contingent features over long periods. Comparative analysis can certainly be very useful in identifying such features.
10 von 10 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
2.0 von 5 Sternen Are you sure you want to read this book? 15. Oktober 2012
Von M. Weddell - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe
How do you select what nonfiction book you want to read next? Perhaps the subject matter interests you, you enjoyed other books by the same author, or you heard through the grapevine that the book was well written. None of these paths should lead you to read Natural Experiments of History.

This collection of historical essays does not center around any particular topic. Instead it focuses on an historical method, comparative history, with the actual topics varying widely. The book really is designed for those interested in historical methods, which is a pretty narrow group I'd estimate.

If you chose this book (like me) because you enjoyed Jared Diamond's other popular history books, be aware that Diamond only wrote one chapter (excluding the introductory and conclusory material) and that Diamond's chapter is a condensed version of material that already appeared in his book Collapse.

If you heard that the book was written through the grapevine, then you might need a different grapevine in my opinion. I enjoyed the insights that the essays produced, especially the essays on the American frontier population booms and the long-lasting effects of the African slave trade, but in general the essays were dry and not easy to navigate.
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