Agriculture and food systems, including organic agriculture, are undergoing a technological and structural modernisation strongly influenced by growing globalisation. Organic agricultural movements can be seen as a tangible effort to create more sustainable development. However, there are large differences between, on the one hand, industrialised farming and consumption based on global food chains and, on the other, smallholder farmers and resource poor people primarily linked in local food markets in low-income countries. This book provides an overview of the potential role of organic agriculture in a global perspective. The book discusses in-depth political ecology, ecological justice, ecological economics and free trade with new insights on the challenges for organic agriculture. This is followed by the potential role of organic agriculture for improving soil fertility, nutrient cycling and food security and reducing veterinary medicine use, together with discussions of research needs and the importance of non-certified organic agriculture.