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Future Israel: Why Christian Anti-Judaism Must Be Challenged: 3 (New American Commentary Studies in Bible and Theology) [Kindle Edition]

Barry E. Horner
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Future Israel: Why Christian Anti-Judaism Must Be Challenged is volume three in the NEW AMERICAN COMMENTARY STUDIES IN BIBLE & THEOLOGY (NACSBT) series for pastors, advanced Bible students, and other deeply committed laypersons.

Author Barry E. Horner writes to persuade readers concerning the divine validity of the Jew today (based on Romans 11:28), as well as the nation of Israel and the land of Palestine, in the midst of this much debated issue within Christendom at various levels. He examines the Bible’s consistent pro-Judaic direction, namely a Judeo-centric eschatology that is a unifying feature throughout Scripture.

Not sensationalist like many other writings on this constantly debated topic, Future Israel is instead notably exegetical and theological in its argumentation. Users will find this an excellent extension of the long-respected NEW AMERICAN COMMENTARY.

 

 


Produktinformation

  • Format: Kindle Edition
  • Dateigröße: 989 KB
  • Seitenzahl der Print-Ausgabe: 428 Seiten
  • ISBN-Quelle für Seitenzahl: 0805446273
  • Verlag: B&H Academic (15. Oktober 2007)
  • Verkauf durch: Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
  • Sprache: Englisch
  • ASIN: B004NY9YH4
  • Text-to-Speech (Vorlesemodus): Aktiviert
  • X-Ray:
  • Word Wise: Nicht aktiviert
  • Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: 5.0 von 5 Sternen  Alle Rezensionen anzeigen (1 Kundenrezension)
  • Amazon Bestseller-Rang: #697.003 Bezahlt in Kindle-Shop (Siehe Top 100 Bezahlt in Kindle-Shop)

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5.0 von 5 Sternen A pearl of great prize 9. März 2008
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe
This extraordinary work superbly exposes Christian Antisemitism (although the author politely employs the term "Anti-Judaism"), relating the history of gentile usurpation of the heritage of the Jewish people, how this mindset became popular with Augustine's amillennialism and how reformers like Luther and Calvin accepted the doctrine of supercessionism or replacement theology and how it has persisted in Reformed theology up to the present day. Jewish Christians are given a voice and the author holds the attitude of the Apostle Paul up as an example, in particular his love for Israel as expressed in the letter to the Romans chapters 9 to 11.

In essence, the book seeks answers from scripture on whether Israel as a distinct nation in its own land has a future according to the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Those who learn from history already know the answer, based on the country's miraculous rebirth in 1948 and its survival against overwhelming odds in a neighborhood of unspeakable evil. The aforementioned question is not a mere academic issue. There are those who still hold to the doctrine of supercessionism/replacement theology, often in a veiled form. They are contributing to the spread of the new Antisemitism as recorded by Phyllis Chesler and by Bernard Harrison in his book The Resurgence of Anti-Semitism.

Horner's scholarly investigation is excruciatingly detailed and steeped in the terminology of Reformed theology so that the lay reader may find it hard going in certain parts, but overall it is accessible to the persistent. He writes in a spirit of humility and seems to bend backwards to accept the bona fides of contemporary Christian Antisemites when pointing out their errors.
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4.0 von 5 Sternen Forceful case for a "pro-Jewish" Christian theology 24. November 2009
Von John A. Battle - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe|Verifizierter Kauf
Barry Horner, pastor and author, believes that the conservative Christian church of our day--in particular, the Reformed branch of that church, to which he belongs and with which he is most familiar--has mistakenly absorbed the false notion that the Christian church has replaced the nation of Israel as God's chosen people. Consequently, there is no longer a special place of blessing or privilege for the Jewish people or nation. This belief, "replacement theology," as it is called, became predominant in the early church by the fifth century, and was accepted and passed on by the early Protestant Reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin, as well as most of their successors. Horner contends that this teaching is non-biblical, and that it has led to historical anti-Semitism and its horrific consequences.

Having come to an appreciation of the Reformed faith by his own study and reading, Horner is convinced that strong exegetical arguments support the doctrines of grace. On the other hand, he says, the arguments supporting amillennialism and replacement theology do not share that strength; nor is replacement theology required by the Reformed doctrines of salvation. That being the case, he has maintained his premillennial beliefs, along with the belief that national Israel is still the "beloved enemy" of God and his people. He states that his particular study of Ezekiel, Hosea, Zechariah, and Romans has confirmed him in this opinion. Scattered throughout the book are lengthy discussions of these passages, along with substantial quotations from earlier sympathetic writers, such as Jonathan Edwards, David Baron, Horatius Bonar, C. H. Spurgeon, J. A. Seiss, H. C. G. Moule, J. C. Ryle, and C. E. B. Cranfield. He also produces statements that favor portions of his argument from such authors as J. B. Lightfoot, G. C. Berkouwer, and W. D. Davies.

Future Israel is organized fairly well; however, there is much repetition, and a more succinct case would, I think, be more effective. After a personal testimonial, Horner begins by quickly surveying the history of replacement theology, starting particularly in the time of Augustine. Christian hostility to Judaism and the Jewish people, Horner consistently maintains, was largely due to the replacement theology enshrined by Augustine in his City of God. The Christian church is the kingdom of God promised in the covenants of the Old Testament; the unbelieving Jews have no part in the covenants now; nor does the future hold any promise of a national restoration.

Over a hundred pages follow in which Horner traces the history of anti-Semitism in Europe and the New World. He spends much time showing the connection between replacement theology and the anti-Jewish stance of European Catholics and Protestants, including the extreme statements of Martin Luther. These attitudes helped set the stage, not only in Germany, but throughout Europe for the general persecutions of the Jewish people for many centuries, and may have led to the complicity of many nominal Christians to their terrific sufferings in the Holocaust. He also traces the history of the Zionist movement, the establishment of Israel, its relations with various types of Christians, and its threats from fanatical Islamic states. He points out that evangelical Christians, especially premillennial ones, have been the best friends of Israel.

The central portion of the book deals with hermeneutics, the interpretation of Scripture, especially as it touches upon the relation of the Jewish people and nation to prophecy and the church in our dispensation. Horner particularly summarizes the anti-Jewish nature of much of this hermeneutics, as it spiritualizes and allegorizes promises to the nation, while it treats the judgments and condemnations literally. A more consistent hermeneutic will recognize both the material and the spiritual nature of the promises to Israel.

Horner then builds his positive case for a "pro-Jewish" theology. He discusses several passages of Scripture, especially Romans 9-11 and its Old Testament links, arguing that the land of Israel is still promised to the Jewish nation. As he examines these key passages, he interacts with representatives of replacement theology. I believe chapters 9-11 are the theological heart of Horner's book. Although in their unbelief they have been scattered across the globe, God still recognizes them as his chosen people, and promises to restore them to faith and possession of their land. In the mean time, Christians should recognize them as "beloved enemies" (Rom 11:28). Just as we might regard unsaved members of our own families, so we should regard unsaved Jewish people. We have been grafted into the stock of Israel; all Israelites are our "brothers" in that sense; they belong to our adopted family; we need to witness to them in love, and pray for and work for their salvation.

The final chapter is an appeal to Christians to recognize our position as the "prodigal son" in Jesus' parable, but that, when the Jewish nation returns to faith in the last days, the positions will be reversed. At that point, we should not be reluctant to receive the believing Jews back into their own family. As Paul says in Romans 11, we should not boast against the cut-off branches. He concludes with encouraging examples of effective Jewish evangelism.

Several appendices add valuable content to the book. Two of them deal with the theologies of Jonathan Edwards and J. C. Ryle as they relate to the Jewish nation. The third discusses grace and law, as related to the Abrahamic covenant. The fourth summarizes the writings of Melanie Phillips, a British journalist and author of Londonistan, who relates the growing anti-Semitism in the Church of England to replacement theology and the growing power of Islamic militancy. The final appendix is a lengthy annotated bibliography of books related to this topic--a very helpful list. The book also contains three indices, for authors, subjects, and Scriptural references.

Being a Reformed premillennialist myself, I find much in Horner's book with which I agree. I think his discussion of Romans 11 is especially helpful. Also, I was not aware of the extent of anti-Semitism in the history of the Christian church, even in its Protestant branches. When learning in seminary of the work of Luther, for example, I heard no mention of his virulent attacks on Jewish people and their liberties.

I do have a couple criticisms. While not being too specific, it appears that Horner believes that the system of Jewish worship in the Old Testament will be reestablished in the future millennium. I believe that this idea is not necessary, that the promises of that restitution were conditional in that time. Since Jesus Christ's sacrifice, there is no need to reestablish animal sacrifices and the related worship. Horner seems aware that his position could be classified as dispensational, but he does not clearly define what he means by that term, and whether he includes himself in that category. He does not discuss eschatological details that might clearly indicate dispensationalism, such as the timing of the rapture. It would have been helpful for him to show the relation of his opinions to these well established systems. This is especially true if he desires to harmonize Reformed theology with premillennialism and a positive attitude toward the Jewish nation.

Another criticism is that he seems to judge the truth of a doctrine on the basis of whether or not it is "pro-Jewish" or "anti-Jewish." It the doctrine under investigation results in hostility to the Jewish nation, then it must be false. A stronger argument is whether or not the doctrine is based on solid exegesis. The results of a doctrine, especially if that doctrine can be abused, do not prove its truth or falsity. The Israelites were to exterminate the Canaanites; that does not mean the revelation given to them by God was false. Replacement theology, as such, does not require hostility to Jews or persecution of Jews; rather, it was abused to lead to those evils. In a similar way, the fact that a doctrine makes it harder to witness to Jews is not proof that the doctrine is wrong. Horner does make a good point, that Paul and other in the Bible are "pro-Jewish" in their sentiments and approach.

In spite of these criticisms, I believe the main purpose of the book is well achieved. The exegetical discussions of the biblical passages are helpful; the history of the relation of the church to the Jewish people is enlightening; and the exhortations to love and witness to our "older brothers" are inspiring.
35 von 42 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen A thorough discussion of Christian views about Israel 26. Januar 2008
Von Jill Malter - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe
The State of Israel has a political problem: many people want to destroy it and are teaching their children that it would be a good idea to destroy it. And some of this antipathy to Israel is religious in nature, as Barry Horner shows in this fine book.

There is a review of some of the foundations of Christian anti-Zionism, including the works of Tertullian, Saint Augustine and Saint John Chrysostom. In more recent times, we see that John Calvin was no friend of the Jews, although Martin Luther was surely far worse. As a matter of fact, one of the few Saints who showed no special animus towards the Jews was Anselm.

We read about some of the expulsions of Jews in Europe. England expelled its Jews in 1290 and Jews were not permitted to return until the time of Oliver Cromwell, in the seventeenth century. Jews were expelled from France in 1306 and 1394, and from Spain in 1492. Some of these Jews fled to Portugal, only to be expelled from there. And, of course, there was anti-Semitism in Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries. There still is.

Next, we see some examples of contemporary anti-Judaism in the United States: Albertus Pieters, Loraine Boettner, Gary Burge, Donald Wagner and O. Palmer Robertson. And there are some corresponding examples of anti-Judaism in the United Kingdom: Colin Chapman, N. T. Wright, Stephen Sizer, Steve Motyer, Peter Walker, and Kenneth Cragg.

Horner also refers to James Parkes, who quite properly explained that the Balfour Declaration did not give Levantine land to the Jews: it simply recognized a historic right of Jews to be in that land (and rejected any claim by Arabs to have a sole right to live there).

There is some interesting material about Theodore Herzl, including an account of his meeting with the Pope (the Pope said the Church would assist neither religious nor secular Jews in returning to the land of Israel). And there's some interesting history of the early portion of the British Mandate: "by 1930, 57% of Jewish land holdings had been either swamp land or never before been cultivated." And we also see Britain's shameful behavior in 1935 to 1948, in the final years of the Mandate.

Horner very helpfully tells us about the excellent work of Bat Ye'or, which may give some perspective to what Chapman, Sizer, and others have to say.

Much of this book dealt with detailed theological topics that I, as a Pagan, found uninteresting. But I was intrigued by the extent to which many opponents of Israel used Biblical sources as an obvious excuse to attack Israel, often in a particularly hypocritical manner. And, of course, a major question for me has not been what excuses people have used to oppose human rights for Jews, but the extent to which they have done so. Some visitors to the Levant in 1839, Bonar and M'Cheyne, are quoted as saying that "the professing Christians here - Greeks, Armenians, and Roman Catholics - are even more bitter enemies to Jews than Mahometans; so that in time of danger, a Jew would betake himself to the house of a Turk for refuge, in preference to that of a Christian." This seems to me to explain a little of the attitude of Levantine Christians such as Naim Ateek (and many others) today.

There are five interesting appendices. We see discussions of the future of Israel and Jonathan Edwards and J. C. Ryle. There is an article by Samuel Hinds Wilkinson (a reply to "The Hope of Israel" by Philip Mauro). And there is a fine article by Melanie Phillips, from 2002, on replacement theology and anti-Judaism. The final appendix is an excellent annotated bibliography on Jewish-Christian relations in Church history (although I might have wanted to add a few books, such as Paul Merkley's "Christian Attitudes towards the State of Israel").

I recommend this book.
43 von 54 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen A pearl of great price 9. März 2008
Von Pieter Uys - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe
This extraordinary work superbly exposes Christian Antisemitism (although the author politely employs the term "Anti-Judaism"), relating the history of gentile usurpation of the heritage of the Jewish people, how this mindset became popular with Augustine's amillennialism and how reformers like Luther and Calvin accepted the doctrine of supercessionism or replacement theology and how it has persisted in Reformed theology up to the present day. Jewish Christians are given a voice and the author holds the attitude of the Apostle Paul up as an example, in particular his love for Israel as expressed in the letter to the Romans chapters 9 to 11.

In essence, the book seeks answers from scripture on whether Israel as a distinct nation in its own land has a future according to the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Those who learn from history already know the answer, based on the country's miraculous rebirth in 1948 and its survival against overwhelming odds in a neighborhood of unspeakable evil. The aforementioned question is not a mere academic issue. There are those who still hold to the doctrine of supercessionism/replacement theology, often in a veiled form. They are contributing to the spread of the new Antisemitism as recorded by Phyllis Chesler and by Bernard Harrison in his book The Resurgence of Anti-Semitism.

Horner's scholarly investigation is excruciatingly detailed and steeped in the terminology of Reformed theology so that the lay reader may find it hard going in certain parts, but overall it is accessible to the persistent. He writes in a spirit of humility and seems to bend backwards to accept the bona fides of contemporary Christian Antisemites when pointing out their errors. Often I find his style too polite, even when he demonstrates the indifference, antagonism and spiteful attitude of the aforementioned to the State of Israel and the Jewish people. Only once, he exclaims with exasperation: "Are we talking of the same God here?"

Chapter One contrasts the attitudes of Augustine and Calvin with those of the Philosemitic Horatius Bonar and Charles Spurgeon, Chapter Two dissects the centuries of Christian Anti-Judaism from the early period through the reformation to the 21st century, and the next looks at Christian Anti-Judaism in the USA with reference to people like Gary Burge, O Palmer Robertson and provides a reply to the arrogant Open Letter To Evangelicals issued by Knox Theological Seminary in Fort Lauderdale.

Anti-Judaism in the UK is discussed in Chapter Four, with particular reference to the dhimmi writers Colin Chapman and Stephen Sizer, whilst the next one provides an overview of the history of Zionism - including the Christian variety - and the rebirth of the state of Israel. More information on the history of Christian Zionism is available in the books Standing With Israel by David Brog and The Politics of Christian Zionism 1891-1948 by Paul Charles Merkley. Chapters Seven and Eight look at the hermeneutics of Christian Anti-Judaism in Catholicism and the Reformed tradition plus the doctrine/s of a-, post- and premillennialism.

The next three chapters deal respectively with Israel and the harmony of spiritual materiality, Israel as heir to the land through Abraham and Israel in a synthesis with Romans 11. The penultimate chapter explores Israel as God's "beloved enemy" from the expression in Romans 11:28 and the last one is devoted to Israel as needing the love of the prodigal Gentile with reference to inter alia Romans 11 and the analogy of Ruth and Orpah. In this regard, see the little book Ruth & Esther: Shadows of Our Future by Frank Morgan.

This book is too vast and provides too many insights to discuss in one review. Most important for me is Horner's exposure of the style of the Anti-Israel theologians of which many examples are given. It is filled with a barely concealed malice and a pejorative tone, completely lacking the supposedly Christian virtues of love and charity. Post-Holocaust this is almost completely incomprehensible if one is unaware of the long history of such ideas entrenched in church history.

The hostility to Israel of some mainstream denominations and the World Council of Churches is well documented in Christian Attitudes Towards the State of Israel by Paul Merkley. In this regard, it is interesting to note the association of Anti-Zionist authors like Colin Chapman and Stephen Sizer with Naim Ateek of the Sabeel Ecumenical Centre. And this in a time when Christians are fleeing the Palestinian territories! Bethlehem was once an overwhelmingly Christian town but these are abandoning it on account of Muslim oppression.

The appendices alone are worth the price of the book. They include writings on the future of Israel by Jonathan Edwards and by J C Ryle, a consideration of law or grace in God's dealings with Israel, a brilliant and thought-provoking essay by Melanie Phillips, the UK author of Londonistan, on Replacement Theology, and a valuable annotated bibliography on Jewish-Christian Relations. This highly appreciated book concludes with a bibliography and index.

Especially in view of the resurgence of Antisemitism, true Christians cannot remain indifferent about the issues raised by Horner. Further information is available in these works that I highly recommend: God's Promise and the Future of Israel by Don Finto, Why Care about Israel? by Sandra Teplinsky and The Irrevocable Calling: Israel's Role as a Light to the Nations by Daniel Juster. Finally, what resonates most strongly with me in Future Israel is the author's unconditional love not for a Jewish Christian "remnant" but for the entire Jewish people, both those in the Diaspora and those in the Holy Land. God bless him.
14 von 17 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen JEHOVAH-SHAMMA. 27. Oktober 2010
Von Truth - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe|Verifizierter Kauf
The scripture is replete in no uncertain terms that Israel is God's Chosen among all the nations of the world. God Chose the Jews not because they were the greatest but the smallest in number amongst the Nations of the world Deuteronomy 7:7. Yet...Poof - all the other ethnic races of the Old Testament have entirely disappeared from the face of this planet, while the Jews remain and prosper in spite of relentless extermination and genocide-wipeout attempts on them throughout human history. As we speak she is surrounded by many who are gladly willing to die and vow to erase her permanently from the face of this world! The survival and the establishment of the Jewish State by itself is a spectacular, supernatural miracle and a stunning fulfillment of Jeremiah's prophecy! Jeremiah prophesied that the Jews shall remain a nation as long as the sun, moon & stars remain - Jeremiah 31:35-37. Whenever we see, meet a Jew, shake hands with him...the prophecy of Jeremiah 31:35-37 is being fulfilled right under our noses and we are touching, breathing and looking at live prophecy in Eastman color and this is beautiful beyond description... Amen.

The Nation Israel as we see today among other facts confirm that God has not forsaken her because of her disobedience and that He certainly has not abandoned His plans for her final redemptive restoration yet to be fulfilled. I don't see any reason to hate the Jews except Satanic reasons. If anyone hates a Jew then he is surely energized by the Devil himself. Hate is a very ugly word...equivalent to slaughter. I am a Jew lover. Why? Because it is the King of the Jews who paid the price to set me free! Almost 2000 years ago The Creator of this Universe manifested himself as a Jewish Baby. He grew up a Jewish Boy. He became a Jewish Rabbi. He was crucified, murdered and buried a Jewish man. After His resurrection he appeared to his Jewish Disciples and said "See my hands and my feet, that it is I myself. Touch me, and see. For a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have" Luke 24:39. Jesus, the King of the Jews will remain and retain this human form for all Eternity in Glory. It is God's prerogative to choose this Jewish lineage. Who are we mortals to question His wisdom with our puny insignificant secular human reason? The author BARRY.E.HORNER has produced superfluous evidence for the final restoration of Israel and has clearly dismissed and entirely dismantled Replacement Theology. This book will taste sweeter than honey to those who delight in the study of Biblical Doctrine.

I simply cannot understand how Reformed Christians who stand firm on the foundations of the TULIP doctrine can believe that Israel has lost and forfeited her covenants, promises and salvation to the Church because of her disobedience?? Will a Gentile born again believer then loose his salvation and forfeit God's promises to someone else because he disobeyed God?? Can anyone find a born again believer who has not sinned?? Have not some of us failed, turned our backs to God disobeyed and back slid to shockingly repugnant, abhorrent sins sinking way below levels of the unregenerate?? Have we lost our salvation then?? Have we not received the sore chastisement and restoration from our interceding loving and living Savior?? Has God ripped us off our salvation and passed it to someone else in His wrath because we displeased Him?? This concept fits well in an ARMINIAN atmosphere. But the puzzling and bizarre mystery of this PARTICULAR BLINDNESS prevailing in the COVENANT Theology camp is sadly an inexplicable enigma. 'FUTURE ISRAEL' is by far the perfect antidote to those who wear the 'Covenant Theology' badge and a-millenial Christians of various Denominations. A MUST READ for all Reformed Brethren for their own edification and maturity in Christ. May the Crucified one be highly exalted by this Book. Soli-Deo-Gloria!
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5.0 von 5 Sternen Top Notch and Full of Hard Truth 2. November 2011
Von Psalm 122 - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe|Verifizierter Kauf
Thirty-one years ago, I was teaching a Sunday school class on prophecy and we were concentrating on the Book of Revelations. I had never heard the term Jewish Roots of Christianity, but as we studied various portions of Scripture, Old and New Testaments, both my wife and I came to realize that the Jewish people, as a distinct group, were vital to prophecy. Since that time, I have studied much and came to truly appreciate the unique role that God has given to the nation of Israel. I do wish that books like Future Israel would have been available in the 80s, but it just wasn't there. This book is a wonderful resource to understand why so many people are not only abandoning Israel politically, but why the church is losing so many blessings in this day and age.

Regarding my review, I can't add a lot to the favorable reviews previously given by Truth, John A. Battle's extensive review of the book, Derek Leman (Leman has written some very good books, too), and Pieter "Toypom." However, I would like to address some things specifically that are mentioned in the book, that were challenged in the negative reviews, and some thoughts from my own 31 years of study on this subject.

Two people made comments about how salvation occurs and gave the wrong message about what Pastor Horner truly said. One said, "This is another wicked deception which the Judeo-Christian system puts out in favor of the saved-by-race thesis of the Talmud of the Pharisees as reflected in Churchianity." The other said, "Jew-worship is poisonous to Judaics as well as everyone else. They are saved only through faith in Jesus Christ." Interesting comments considering that early in the book (p. 70), Horner addresses this issue twice. First he says, "Without qualification, I join in upholding the glory of God's one gospel that saves both Jew and Gentile according to His elective grace through faith alone. However, just as the saved man and woman retain their gender identity following conversion, so the Jew and Gentile retain their ethnic identity." Then he says, "Regarding God giving Israel the land, "in no way is this to suggest that the working of God's saving grace is compromised."

Horner states his primary goals in the very beginning of the book. He states, "As our study will unquestionably prove, the wrong perception of Israel and the Jews by Christians, biblically speaking has produced consequences of horrific proportions during the history of the Christian Church in all its strands. Such a shameful legacy, perpetuated during the illustrious Reformation and onwards, is still prevalent in substantial degrees in many Calvinist, Reformed, and Sovereign Grace environments." He also states, "This volume is dedicated to the elucidation of the premillennial perspective, especially as it focuses on national Israel that has been ignored, belittled, and distorted in Calvinistic, Reformed, and Sovereign Grace Circles."

Then he takes it a step further and states that he agrees with much of the Reformed doctrines, but not the ones about Israel/the Jews future. He says, "I agree that the salvation and sanctification of the human soul is more important than the salvation and sanctification of the land of Israel. But on the other hand, the NT emphatically repudiates as heresy the concept of salvation and sanctification of the soul nullifies the importance of the salvation and sanctification of the human body. Hence we must reject the implied Gnostic spirit whereby the land is regarded as eschatologically insignificant." (p. 51) Horner goes on to say, "To be sure, Christ is the ground of covenant blessing, but this does not nullify national blessing as is plainly indicated (in the scriptures). (p. 73)

When I visited Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Memorial in Israel and the Holocaust Museum in Washington, D.C., I was numbed and greatly sadden at what the Christian Church failed to do, not only in Germany, but around the world prior to and during the reign of Nazi Germany and it's persecution of the Jews. What I have learned since is that one of the primary reasons for the Church's non-action was because of the teachings of the church itself. That horrified me! Horner shows in great detail the many forms of anti-Judaism that can result whenever the church applies OT promises given to Israel as belonging to the church. To clarify, Horner says, "by theological anti-Judaism" I mean the understanding of the present NT age in which the Christian Church is now alleged to have superseded or fulfilled (become) the OT people of God. As a result, it is asserted that covenantally in the sight of God, there is now no such person as a "Jew" or "Hebrew" with distinctive national and territorial identity."

Horner's quote of Clark Williamson (p. 35) is not new to me, but it does make the point well. Williamson says, "all the literature one reads on the final solution leaves the clear impression that the pervasiveness of classical Christian anti-Jewish theology was a significant factor in the success of Hitler's program. When it did not directly contribute to support for Hitler's policies - and it often did - it created an apathy toward the Jews that was equally decisive in permitting the Holocaust. The great majority of the German people did not actively support or actively oppose Hitler; they were merely indifferent."

This approach has consequences regarding the current nation of Israel and the Jewish people. This is pointed out by Horner when he states, "whereas racial anti-Judaism in the twentieth century culminated in a process of physical elimination, the extermination of Jews in the Holocaust, theological anti-Judaism in the twenty-first century culminates in identity elimination, the extermination of Jewishness in the name of Jesus the Jew." Both forms of anti-Judaism end at the same place, "no more Jews."

In one section of the book, which wasn't new to me, but more extensive than most books of this nature provide, Horner even shows how this effects the translations of different editions of the Bible, because of the interpreters fixed beliefs. Regarding the way a Bible verse is interpreted, Horner shows how the NLT rendered Gal. 6:16 to change the promise from including a distinct Israel and makes it "just" the church by removing "Israel" and changing it to "new." The NLT rendering reads, "May God's peace and mercy be upon all who live by this principle; they are the new people of God." The KJV reads, "And as many as walk according to this rule, peace [be] on them, and mercy, and upon the Israel of God."

Horner's comments on how Eph. 2:15-16 has been used to justify this stance of eliminating the Jewish people from having a "distinct" promise in the future, are well worth the price of the book. He states, "The main point many Augustinian amillennialist attempt to derive from this passage is that the "one new man" and "God in one body" (Eph. 2:15-16), evidence a homogenous unity that does not allow diversity, namely, divine recognition of Jewish and Gentile Christians. This I believe to be a fundamental error since the "one Spirit" and "one Lord" and "one God and Father" (Eph. 4:4-6) constitute a personal diversity in the essential unity of the Godhead. In Eph. 2;13-16, and in I Cor. 12:12-30 where there is one body of Christ that is composed of distinctively gifted members, over all unity comprises a complementary diversity, as in the marriage union. Thus the `one new man" and the "god in one body" - indeed, "the whole building [is] a holy sanctuary in the Lord" (Eph. 2:21) - represent a unity that incorporated Jewish and Gentile individuality ordained of God (Gal. 3:28-29; 6:15-16)."

The issues Horner brings out does not have to do with the means of salvation, it is about God's promises to the nation of Israel, to the Jews specifically as a distinct group of people. It is about whether or not God's "Word" is dependable. However, when the church changes the words and meanings, they make God's promises "untrue." That isn't acceptable, but it shows in another sense that God even foreknew that the church would take this stance. God states that at the end of time, all nations, and the apostate church, will abandon Israel but "He" will not. The sad part, as Horner points out in many ways in his book, is that some groups within the church, throughout history and presently, are helping that wrong action take place even now.

Horner traces all of this thought process from Jerome to present day advocates like O. Palmer Robertson, R.C. Sproul, Stephen Sizer, and others. Some of the other reviews covered these in detail. This is really staggering at times as he painstakingly shows the process in the people's own words.

The book is extremely detailed, sometimes painful to read, but I commend Rev. Horner for writing it. I just hope others will read it and grasp the truths he presents in the book. I can't recommend this book enough.
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