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Five Came Back: A Story of Hollywood and the Second World War [Englisch] [Gebundene Ausgabe]

Mark Harris

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27. Februar 2014
In Pictures at a Revolution, Mark Harris turned the story of the five movies nominated for Best Picture in 1967 into a landmark work of cultural history, a book about the transformation of an art form and the larger social shift it signified. In Five Came Back, he achieves something larger and even more remarkable, giving us the untold story of how Hollywood changed World War II, and how World War II changed Hollywood, through the prism of five film directors caught up in the war: John Ford, William Wyler, John Huston, Frank Capra, and George Stevens.
It was the best of times and the worst of times for Hollywood before the war. The box office was booming, and the studios’ control of talent and distribution was as airtight as could be hoped. But the industry’s relationship with Washington was decidedly uneasy—hearings and investigations into allegations of corruption and racketeering were multiplying, and hanging in the air was the insinuation that the business was too foreign, too Jewish, too “un-American” in its values and causes. Could an industry this powerful in shaping America’s mind-set really be left in the hands of this crew? Following Pearl Harbor, Hollywood had the chance to prove its critics wrong and did so with vigor, turning its talents and its business over to the war effort to an unprecedented extent.

No industry professionals played a bigger role in the war than America’s most legendary directors: Ford, Wyler, Huston, Capra, and Stevens. Between them they were on the scene of almost every major moment of America’s war, and in every branch of service—army, navy, and air force; Atlantic and Pacific; from Midway to North Africa; from Normandy to the fall of Paris and the liberation of the Nazi death camps; to the shaping of the message out of Washington, D.C.

As it did for so many others, World War II divided the lives of these men into before and after, to an extent that has not been adequately understood. In a larger sense—even less well understood—the war divided the history of Hollywood into before and after as well. Harris reckons with that transformation on a human level—through five unforgettable lives—and on the level of the industry and the country as a whole. Like these five men, Hollywood too, and indeed all of America, came back from the war having grown up more than a little.

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The Wall Street Journal:
“Mr. Harris has a huge story to tell, and he does so brilliantly, maintaining suspense in a narrative whose basic outcome will be known ahead of time. Five Came Back is packed with true stories that, according to the proverb, are stranger than fiction. Mr. Harris's story of five particular directors at one particular moment of history tells us much about the motion-picture industry, about the nature of filmmaking and, more generally, about the relation of art to the larger demands of society. Although Five Came Back at first seems to be chronicling a collective enterprise, it turns out to be an inspirational, if cautionary, tale of the triumph of the individual over the collective, of personal vision over groupthink, and ultimately of art over propaganda.”

The New York Times:
“A tough-minded, information-packed and irresistibly readable work of movie-minded cultural criticism. Like the best World War II films, it highlights marquee names in a familiar plot to explore some serious issues: the human cost of military service, the hypnotic power of cinema and the tension between artistic integrity and the exigencies of war.”

Leonard Maltin:
“In addition to being a prodigious researcher and a knowledgeable film buff, Harris is a graceful writer whose prose brings the world of wartime, at home and abroad, to vivid life on every page. I tore through this hefty book as if it were a novel and can’t recommend it highly enough.”

The Washington Post:
Five Came Back, by Mark Harris, has all the elements of a good movie: fascinating characters, challenges, conflicts and intense action. This is Harris’s second brilliant book about movies. Both books demonstrate meticulous research and exceptional skill at telling intersecting and overlapping stories with clarity and power. Five Came Back enables us to watch the films of Ford, Capra, Wyler, Huston and Stevens with new insight.”

The New Yorker:
“A splendidly written narrative.”

San Francisco Chronicle:
“Can't-put-it-down history of World War II propaganda film.”

The Los Angeles Times:
“Meticulously researched, page-turning.”

David Thompson, The New Republic:
“I recommend this book for its narrative sweep, its revelation of character, and for the many ironies that attend the idea of ‘documentary.’”

Cleveland Plain Dealer:
“Mark Harris writes the old-fashioned way. His books are not quick and slick but meticulous. Definitive.  In these lush, informative pages, Harris indeed reaffirms his commitment to writing the old-fashioned way, the way that evinces profound respect for his craft, his material and his readers.”

Booklist (starred):
“It’s hardly news that the movies affect and are affected by the broader canvas of popular culture and world history, but Harris—perhaps more successfully than any other writer, past or present—manages to find in that symbiotic relationship the stuff of great stories. Every chapter contains small, priceless nuggets of movie history, and nearly every page offers an example of Harris’ ability to capture the essence of a person or an event in a few, perfectly chosen words. Narrative nonfiction that is as gloriously readable as it is unfailingly informative.”

Kirkus Reviews:
“A comprehensive, clear-eyed look at the careers of five legendary directors who put their Hollywood lives on freeze-frame while they went off to fight in the only ways they knew how. As riveting and revealing as a film by an Oscar winner.”

Publishers Weekly:
“Insightful. Harris pens superb exegeses of the ideological currents coursing through this most political of cinematic eras, and in the arcs of his vividly drawn protagonists…we see Hollywood abandoning sentimental make-believe to confront the starkest realities.”

Library Journal:
“Harris surpasses previous scholarship on the directors who are the focus here… This well-researched book is essential for both film enthusiasts and World War II aficionados.”

Über den Autor und weitere Mitwirkende

For fifteen years, Mark Harris worked as a writer and an editor covering movies, television, and books for Entertainment Weekly. He is the author of Pictures at a Revolution: Five Movies and the Birth of the New Hollywood. A graduate of Yale University, he lives in New York City with his husband, Tony Kushner.

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5.0 von 5 Sternen The Best Years of Their Lives 10. Dezember 2013
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Five Hollywood directors volunteered for active duty after Pearl Harbor. They ranged in age from mid-thirties to late forties and had families to support. They were in no danger of being drafted at their age, and taking an indefinite leave from their careers was risky. They took huge cuts in pay to join up. They all accepted commissions and spent the war doing what they did best -- making movies.

I came into Five Came Back with a pretty sketchy idea of who these five directors were (Frank Capra, John Ford, John Huston, William Wyler, George Stevens). I remembered Capra did It's a Wonderful Life and John Ford did westerns, or was that John Huston? So, to be honest, I was ready to bail out if it turned out to be for insiders.

Once I started the book though, I was hooked. Mark Harris did a tremendous amount of research to track down the stories of the five. There's a fair amount of personal information and some gossipy bits, but mostly it's the story of the movies they made while they were in uniform. Since they were working for Uncle Sam and not for a movie studio or a news outlet, most of what they did was propaganda and training films. But because these were talented and creative men, they didn't churn out standard issue films.

While all the stories are fascinating, that of George Stevens is the most gripping. He was with the first Allied unit that entered the Dachau concentration camp after the Germans had fled. No one was prepared for the horror. And as an army unit, they were unable to do much right away for the many inmates who had survived to that point. Stevens filmed as much as he could, and his film would be used as evidence during the Nuremburg Trials. The experience shattered him though, and it took years for him to recover enough to make movies again.

Another overwhelming episode was Frank Capra's filming of the invasion of Normandy on D-Day. According to Harris, it was so huge that it was impossible to capture on film. Capra had numerous cameramen along the beaches and with the soldiers, but capturing sheer numbers of men along the miles of beaches was mind-numbing. Capra's skill as a director couldn't overcome the limitations of film.

An interesting theme that runs throughout is that of the nature of propaganda. All the directors were tasked to make propaganda films, and this was not considered a devious or dishonest thing to do. It was considered a necessary morale booster for both the military and civilian populations. Some of the directors wanted to keep the films as honest as possible, but others (especially Capra) had no qualms about "recreating" events or enhancing them for effect. Leaving out scenes of death or cruelty was another kind of avoidance of truth in the name of keeping morale up.

When the war was over and the directors resumed their Hollywood careers, they found that they had a hard time getting back into the swing. Time hadn't stopped while they were away and those directors and actors who had not left Hollywood had profited nicely. John Huston never forgave John Wayne for staying out of the army while making a lucrative career of playing war heroes.

The side-by-side stories of Frank Capra and William Wyler's first post-war films illustrated the difficulty in returning to civilian life after four years of war. Capra made It's a Wonderful Life, an old-fashioned film that audiences had no patience for. It was not a popular movie. But Wyler's The Best Years of Their Lives, abut three men having difficulty returning to civilian life resonated with audiences. It won the Academy Award. Odd that now, Capra's film is better known.

A well-researched and very well-written account of an unusual period in movie history.
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5.0 von 5 Sternen You can't go home again. 26. Dezember 2013
Von Steven Schwartz - Veröffentlicht auf
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Five top Hollywood directors -- John Ford, Frank Capra, John Huston, William Wyler, and George Stevens -- enlisted in the armed services for World War II to offer their skills in documenting the conflict. Ford, the most prescient of the five, actually joined the Navy several months before Pearl Harbor. All had made classic films before the war. All of them put their very lucrative careers on hold, with no guarantee that they would or could resume them afterward. Except for Capra, all of them saw action. Capra stayed in the US to help organize Hollywood's war effort and the army's propaganda.

James Agee remarked in one of his film essays that most of these men's work deepened after the war, and this book shows you why. Harris also paints a detailed picture of the complex relationships among the studios, the military, and the movie-going public.

Ford, famously, was wounded during the Battle of Midway. Wyler risked his life filming bombing runs over Germany and actually lost his hearing trying to get a particular shot. Ford and Stevens filmed the D-Day landings at Omaha and Juno beaches, respectively. Stevens documented (he realized immediately that his footage would be used as evidence) the liberation of Dachau. He would not allow his men to film the worst of it, but shot the crematoria and other footage himself. Huston worked mainly in Italy. Capra spent his war mainly creating the Why We Fight series, in the process coming up with many narrative innovations that we now take for granted.

Harris also contrasts these men with other Hollywood people who served. Darryl F. Zanuck, the head of 20th-Century Fox, strutted like a popinjay in his tailored uniforms and insisted on being addressed as "Colonel." He squandered resources and produced nothing usable. The great cinematographer Gregg Tolland saw the war as his chance to direct. He made a sincere effort, but the army refused to release his re-enactment of Pearl Harbor. Director Anatole Litvak did mainly what was required of him competently -- not always a given within the film units.

Most of these men knew they were not making movies about war but movies of war. In the age before instant 24/7 news, the public craved footage of the real thing. Nevertheless, some directors used re-enactments. The battle of San Pietro was over by the time John Huston got there to make the documentary. Huston consciously tried to fudge things to give his re-enactment footage an "authentic" look. Capra approved re-enactments over actual live footage, especially in the cases where American units had missed the real thing. This caused -- and continues to cause -- controversy. The British more or less won the documentary competition with their insistence on live footage in such films as Desert Victory, but then the British had a much stronger documentary tradition than the Americans.

From the American standpoint, however, the British work was unsatisfactory because they not unreasonably played up Britain's role in the conflict. Nevertheless, Ford, Wyler, Huston, and Stevens produced outstanding work: Ford's Battle of Midway (in color, yet), with its famous shot of the camera dropped by Ford after shrapnel hit him and then picked up again, astonished audiences; Wyler's Memphis Belle: The Story of a Flying Fortress; Huston's Let There Be Light (about the psychiatric trauma suffered by soldiers and its treatment -- the army was so skittish of this that it not only refused to release the film, it tried to seize all copies); Stevens's Nazi Concentration Camps and Let Justice Be Done, both important and horrifying.

How did the war change these men's work. The most dramatic change was in Stevens, who also suffered, I think, the most psychological trauma over what he had seen. Known mainly as a director of light comedies with the occasional action picture thrown in (Damsel in Distress, The More the Merrier, Gunga Din, Woman of the Year), he went on to direct such powerful works as Shane (where the individual killings are actually shocking), A Place in the Sun, The Big Country (which features just about the only realistic fistfight in the movies), and The Diary of Anne Frank. Ford made masterpieces before the war -- like Stagecoach, Young Mr. Lincoln, and Drums along the Mohawk -- all filled with a boyish sensibility. His first film after the war was They Were Expendable, an elegy to the men who stayed behind in Bataan to delay the Japanese and give the US a chance to rebuild the fleet destroyed at Pearl Harbor. There's a more complicated sense of uplift in the postwar films -- a kind of triumph mixed with keenly-felt damage and cost -- missing in the earlier ones. Huston's superb Maltese Falcon and the less-than-superb Across the Pacific, done before Huston entered service, are essentially blood-and-thunder thrillers, no matter how well done. Again, his films after the war often take up the theme of courage in a complicated way. Key Largo, for example, has the structure of a thriller, but Bogart's portrayal of a war veteran who has seen too much and Edward G. Robinson's casually cruel gangster take the story into a more complicated neighborhood. I've never particularly cared for Wyler's work. Other than The Westerner (a marvelous film), his pre-war work consisted notably of dramas which featured Bette Davis Acting. I will say that The Best Years of Our Lives, about the problems returning veterans face re-establishing family life and their sanity and dealing with horrid body damage, is probably his masterpiece.

Capra's postwar movie career seemed to follow the pattern he established during the war. His documentaries mostly arrived too late to be relevant to events. His postwar movies seemed behind the times as well. He could make really only a Capra Movie, better than anyone else, but a genre that didn't fit postwar realities. I think more of Capra's movies than Harris does. The postwar It's a Wonderful Life, despite its corn, has a truthful emotional center, as does prewar Meet John Doe, a film touched by the darkness of Fascism. As Harris amply demonstrates, Capra was no political thinker, but a great artist needn't necessarily be intellectual. It's a Wonderful Life, despite its initial failure at the box office, finally resonated with the public to such an extent, we think it was always revered. That the public found it again indicates that it's not entirely irrelevant. Nevertheless, its failure spooked Capra, and the rest of his postwar work, with the exception of State of the Union, never reached the levels he had established. He retired early.

Obviously, this is a complex story, and Harris shapes it clearly, handling his large cast of characters surely through at least twenty-five years of events. That in itself is a terrific achievement. Furthermore, Harris's research runs both wide and deep. It's not only a good book, it's shows a high level of conscientiousness and discipline infrequently encountered. Among other things, he actually goes to the trouble of identifying major themes and having them guide the narrative. This is not "this happened, then that" history. I do quibble with some of his assessments of various directors, but who cares? It's vanilla vs. chocolate all over again. The prose suits the story and Harris handles both tragedy (the Stevens passages especially) and comedy (Zanuck and Huston) with equal skill. The book also moved surely, and I finished it without a sense of undue effort.

I should say that I read an uncorrected proof, without the usual bibliographic apparatus -- index (an absence I keenly felt), acknowledgements, numbered endnotes, and so on -- but I'm sure the publisher will supply them when the book debuts on shelves, both actual and virtual.
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4.0 von 5 Sternen In-depth look at the impact of WWII on the movie business, and vice versa 3. Januar 2014
Von Gary K. McCormick - Veröffentlicht auf
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe|Vine Kundenrezension eines kostenfreien Produkts (Was ist das?)
"Five Came Back: A Story of Hollywood and the Second World War" examines the impact that the Second World War had on the Hollywood film-making community in general, and five top directors – William Wyler, John Ford, John Huston, Frank Capra, and George Stevens – in particular. It is a well-researched volume with considerable detail (sometimes too much, frankly) which brings to light aspects of the uncomfortable alliance between civilian filmmakers and their military counterparts that most readers, even WW II aficionados, might not be aware of.

The partnership between the Hollywood community and the military film-making establishment that was forged in hurried fashion when the United States was plunged into war on December 7th, 1941 was never an easy one, and the varied wartime careers of the five notable film directors around which the volume is structured brings this fact to light.

Treading carefully with government and military information establishments which often viewed them as slightly untrustworthy, liberal-tending dilettantes, these five men brought their own personal and political baggage to the task of making training films and morale-boosting documentaries for the civilian and military populations. John Huston was a thrill-seeking adventurer who firmly supported the war, Frank Capra was a timid sort whose beliefs wavered with the current political wind – his only true conviction the fear of being ostracized.

While some went to the front, in harm's way – notably John Ford and John Huston – others contributed from the home front; Frank Capra, for example. For all the trials and tribulations these five men encountered, the over-arching impression that I came away with was that they didn't really accomplish much. For example – Capra began laboring over a series of "Why We Fight" documentaries early in the war, but his "Know Your Enemy – Japan" segment wasn't finished until just before the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki effectively closed out the war in the Pacific.

Internecine squabbles between the Signal Corp and the Office of War Information (OWI) reduced the effectiveness of the effort, and these newly-commissioned Hollywood officers, unused to navigating the labyrinthine military bureaucracy, floundered about while trying to obtain equipment and supplies, not to mention clear direction for the films they were to produce. Complicating the picture was the ongoing conflict between men who were used to going their own way and a military establishment which wanted them to do things the military way.

Overall, "Five Came Back" is an interesting look at a little-explored aspect of the American war effort during the Second World War, but it occasionally gets bogged down in a veritable morass of information, and the structure of the book – which hops back and forth between activities of the five men with whom it is mainly concerned – is sometimes confusing. A clearer expostulation of the timeline of the war's events, in relation to the activities of Capra, Huston, Wyler, Ford, and Stevens, would, in my mind, have made it easier to follow along.

This book has some shortcomings, but it is, in general, a notable addition to the body of historical knowledge on the Second World War, exploring as it does a subject that has been little touched upon (though I never did quite figure out the reasoning behind the title…).
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5.0 von 5 Sternen Great Book for Film Buffs and Military History Fans! 10. Februar 2014
Von David Hall - Veröffentlicht auf
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As a "Baby Boomer" born in the early 1950s, I was raised on a steady diet of classic motion pictures from legendary directors such as Frank Capra, John Ford, and William Wyler. I'm a military history buff as well, so I was somewhat familiar with John Ford's role in documenting the Battle of Midway and D-Day. Despite that interest and awareness, I found "Five Came Back" to be truly educational, enlightening, and highly entertaining...My understanding of that era greatly increased.

Although politics has always intruded upon cinematic art, I didn't realize the full extent governments influenced the content and release strategies of feature films before, during, and after World War II. The same goes for documentaries produced in that era; competition between the Allies over who could produce the best battlefield films? I was surprised to learn how many of those documentaries were chock full of re-staged battle scenes.

One of the facts which surprised me the most was the deep-seated antipathy director John Ford had for one of his biggest stars, John Wayne, over Wayne's avoidance of military service during the war. Yes, the same John Wayne who so many folks today hold up as a "Great American Hero", likely based on all of his military film roles, actively kept himself out of "Harm's Way" for a variety of bogus reasons. When compared to the group of middle-aged directors who served with their combat camera crews on multiple bombing missions, hitting the beach at Normandy or Tarawa, or during the Battle of the Bulge, John Wayne was anything but heroic. Ford seemed to take great satisfaction in publicly calling out Wayne on movie sets for being a shirker.

I truly enjoyed learning the back stories behind Oscar-winning films, and how "Dr. Seuss" got his start making raunchy training films for G.I.s. Even more intriguing, most of the directors who went to war experienced varying levels of PTSD, which had a marked effect on their postwar films.

"Five Came Back" is very well-written and also thoroughly documented, which doesn't always occur in books of this type. Author Mark Harris is very adept at smoothly switching subjects, and maintained a functional chronology in his narrative, which enhanced readibility. I highly recommend this book!
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3.0 von 5 Sternen How the War Was Fought on Film 7. April 2014
Von C. Peterson - Veröffentlicht auf
Format:Gebundene Ausgabe
You would think that a book about 5 great Hollywood directors who set out to film World War II would be fascinating, and large chucks of this book are. On the other hand, a story of 5 directors being endlessly frustrated by military and political bureaucracy is much less fascinating. There is too much of the latter for this book to earn more than 3 stars.

Each of the 5 directors featured in the book (Frank Capra, John Ford, John Huston, George Stevens, and William Wyler) enlisted early in World War II as a filmmaker. They were assigned to make a variety of pictures, some as training films for the troops, some for theatrical release. Their experiences were occasionally exhilarating and often frustrating, a problem with the pacing of the book as a whole.

There are interesting stories here: filming the Battle of Midway from the middle of the fighting, a feat for which John Ford took far too much credit; John Huston being unable to get real footage for the liberation of an Italian town and then shooting the entire "documentary" using recreations; the inspired collaboration of Ted Geisel (Dr. Seuss) and Chuck Jones (Looney Toons) in the production of a series of raunchy training cartoon shorts; William Wyler lying flat in the belly of a B-17 so he could get footage through the ball turret, a position that could have gotten him killed in a bad landing.

Each of these men was stymied at some point, because the film they wanted to direct was rejected by military brass or politicians as inappropriate. Sometimes the images were too stark, sometimes the message was not sufficiently uplifting, sometimes the government reversed course after a film was done and refused to show it. Sometimes the government simply didn't know what it wanted to tell the troops or the American people about the war they were fighting. It made for seemingly endless rewrites and re-edits. The bureaucratic fights become repetitive, and finally boring.

The shifts from one director to another are abrupt and disjointed, and give the book as a whole a jumpy, disorganized feeling. The book's photos would have been better chosen to show fewer shots of the directors and the stars they worked with before the war, and more stills from the actual films they made during the war.

This is not a bad book at all. It just gets bogged down in between the good stuff.
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