This authoritative and wide-ranging dictionary covers historical events, themes and personalities. Containing over 800 entries written by experts in their fields of study, it gives global coverage of political, diplomatic, military, social and economic history, as well as providing overviews of the artistic and cultural history of the age. A time of rapid change, the 19th century saw developments in every sphere of activity, from population growth to changes in the nature of scientific knowledge and research. The Industrial Revolution initiated the ongoing process of economic growth that was to transform the Western world. Politics saw the advent of socialism and liberalism. The growth of nationalism led to European conflicts, while revolts in South America marked the first examples of internal nationalist revolution against European domination. Much attention is placed on the role of women, on African-American and Native American figures, and on areas that fall outside the European-North American axis. The many biographical entries are cross-referenced where appropriate, and there is a biographical index. Useful maps and a chronology complete this reference guide.