A reminder from the first volume as a general review: There are many Castles in Iran that are registered by the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran as both heritage and historic sites. Castles in Iran were fortified residential villages or towns that usually were occupied by one or two tribes. By urbanization and modernization process in Iran from mid-2oth century, however, many residents of castles moves to the cities and, as a result, castles were abandoned. On the other hand, since castles represent a self-sufficient living structure in Iran for many centuries, the residents of castles kept their wealth (--i.e., antique objects, gold or silver coins. jewelry, and silverware) inside of castles. For this reason, the Cultural Heritage Organizations :of Iran at present sponsor and guard almost all the castles. A few castles that are live at the present and farmers and herders live in them are exceptions to the rule. Finally, a list of registered castles of Iran that was given to the author by the Cultural Heritage Organization has more than 1300 entries. But the actual number of castles in Iran is more than 1300. From this number, about 90% are totally ruined, but have treasury value for possible gold and silver coins inside them, as far as the Cultural Heritage Organization is concerned. About 20 to 50 castles, at the present, are relatively in good shape with clay keeps or towers.
From building materials point of view, there are two main kinds of castles in Iran: 1) stone and clay castles at north; 2) Clay castles in south and central parts of Iran where the weather is dry and hot.