Amateur geologist and archaeologist, Boucher de Perthes (1788–1868) was the first to establish the existence of man in Europe in the Pleistocene period. Although his three-volume work resulted from over ten years of excavations in the gravel pits of the Somme Valley, Boucher de Perthes' assertions were doubted by contemporaries. His conclusion was based on the simultaneous discovery of flint tools and human remains. These doubts appeared justified when a human jaw uncovered during one of his excavations turned out to be a hoax. De Perthes' findings later received support from the British Royal Society, sparking an explosion of scientific research on evolution. De Perthes was elected an officer of the Légion d'Honneur, and served as President of the Société d'Emulation d'Abbeville (Competitiveness Society) for seventeen years. Published in Paris, 1864, volume 3 includes results from further excavations, and articles by leading French and British scientists.