The book is mainly addressed to young graduate students in engineering and natural sciences who start to face numerical simulation, either at a research level or in the field of industrial applications. The main subjects covered are: Biomechanics, Stochastic Calculus, Geophysical flow simulation and Shock-Capturing numerical methods for Hyperbolic Systems of Partial Differential Equations. The book can also be useful to researchers or even technicians working at an industrial environment, who are interested in the state-of-the-art numerical techniques in these fields. Moreover, it gives an overview of the research developed at the French and Spanish universities and in some European scientific institutions. This book can be also useful as a textbook at master courses in Mathematics, Physics or Engineering.