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A History of Civilizations [Englisch] [Taschenbuch]

Fernand Braudel , Richard Mayne
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Kurzbeschreibung

24. November 2011
Written from a consciously anti-enthnocentric approach, this fascinating work is a survey of the civilizations of the modern world in terms of the broad sweep and continuities of history, rather than the "event-based" technique of most other texts.

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Produktinformation

  • Taschenbuch: 640 Seiten
  • Verlag: Penguin; Auflage: Reprint (24. November 2011)
  • Sprache: Englisch
  • ISBN-10: 0140124896
  • ISBN-13: 978-0140124897
  • Vom Hersteller empfohlenes Alter: Ab 18 Jahren
  • Größe und/oder Gewicht: 19,6 x 2,9 x 12,9 cm
  • Durchschnittliche Kundenbewertung: 3.3 von 5 Sternen  Alle Rezensionen anzeigen (3 Kundenrezensionen)
  • Amazon Bestseller-Rang: Nr. 140.007 in Fremdsprachige Bücher (Siehe Top 100 in Fremdsprachige Bücher)
  • Komplettes Inhaltsverzeichnis ansehen

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Synopsis

Written in 1962 as the basis for a history course, this curious book is a history of the civilizations of the modern world (from the 8th century on), written in terms of the broad sweep and continuities of history, rather than "event-based". Starting with the civilizations of Islam and the Far East, Braudel takes a consciously anti-ethnocentric approach, which is in education terms almost as radical now, as it was when the French ministry of education rejected it as a basis for school history teaching in 1962.

Über den Autor und weitere Mitwirkende

Fernand Braudel was France's foremost post-war historian. He is best known for The Mediterranean in the Age of Philip II, Civilization and Capitalism and The Identity of France. Richard Mayne is a renowned translator of French. His other translations include Monet's Memoirs.

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Einleitungssatz
It would be pleasant to be able to define the word 'civilization' simply and precisely, as one defines a straight line. Lesen Sie die erste Seite
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3.3 von 5 Sternen
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3.0 von 5 Sternen completely agree with the man below "GREAT" to "good" 31. Oktober 1999
Von Ein Kunde
Format:Taschenbuch
I am not an academic, nor do I have a great command of history. But while reading this book, I got completely consumed by it in the begining, but as it progressed onto europe e.t.c... I found it harder and harder to read.
But the first half was amazing! Given the subject matter is such a large undertaking.
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3.0 von 5 Sternen Great to Good 5. Februar 1999
Format:Taschenbuch
It was always going to be difficult to write a book about Civilisations. The decision tree alone of what infomration to include/exclude would be a significant problem. Braudel's thesis is that religion, culture and geography, toghether with traditional tools of history are all important in understanding civilisations. This is a true and accurate perspective. He contrates on Nth America, Europe, Asia, Islam and Africa. His chapter on Islam, and the first civilisation studied, was outstanding and certainly he was able to tie in his thesis to this examiniation. However, i got the impression he got lazy, and ended up providing cobbled sketches of the other civilisations, and concetrating more on hisotry than analysis. Hence why Great to good.
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4.0 von 5 Sternen What are civilizations? 28. März 1997
Von Ein Kunde
Format:Taschenbuch
A history that studies the meaning of civilizations. The author first covers the material by tackling the definition and meaning of the word "civilization." From there, the author dives in to the material and breaks the world into geographic and cultural regions. Country's do play a role, but civilizations continue to prosper. The material dates itself when referring to current events (the book was published in the 1960's). A great study tool for those with a strong command of history and wishes to understand the impact of religion, culture and geography
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50 von 53 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen The First and Still the Best Multidisciplinary World History 22. November 2005
Von Ralph White - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Taschenbuch
When Fernand Braudel originally published this text in the sixties, he became a pariah at the Sorbonne. In retrospect that disapprobation was the kind of seal of approval that "banned in Boston" came to embody. Previous histories drilled deep into one facet of history. Braudel's was a pioneering effort in multidisciplinary historical analysis. It captures the historical flow that evolves civilizations, sacrificing only the detail outside the themes. Even subsequent to "A History of Civilizations," other historians have been unable to write a thematic survey that matches this original. And don't be tempted to skip the "soft" introductory chapters with titles like "The Study of Civilization Involves All the Social Sciences," and "The Continuity of Civilizations." These tee up the hard topics, like "The Greatness and Decline of Islam." There's method in Braudel's approach, and it takes patience. Braudel's translator, Richard Mayne had his job cut out for him. The complex syntax is that of a French intellectual of the sixties, and it is retained in Mayne's text, but you become accustomed to it. Don't look for maps or photographs in this Penguin Paperback; the text alone is six hundred pages. There's only one other book in this space, "From Dawn to Decadence," by Jacques Barzun. In my view they are complementary.
32 von 32 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
3.0 von 5 Sternen So so, but .... 25. August 2008
Von T - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Taschenbuch
Braudel is considered one of the great 20th c. historians. He fought the French educational establishment to broaden the scope of history to include material from sociology, anthropology, geography, etc., and above all economics. This was in opposition to the traditional kings and battles approach, and this book was intended as a textbook (not accepted by the authorities). Arguably the movement's been quite fruitful, but this book is a very mixed bag - occasionally excellent, sometimes quite bad, and usually mediocre to good. It's also not a history of civilizations - it deals with what Braudel considered the great living civilizations - and rather than being history as usually understood, it describes primary characteristics of each with some development over time. Even the treatment of each "civilization" varies a great deal from one to the next, e.g. considerable space is devoted to the literature of Latin America while not to the others. The civilizations included are the Muslim World, Black Africa, the Far East (includes India), then Europe and European civilization elsewhere (to which he devotes half the book).

In spite of the many gaps, blind spots and weaknesses, there are some real high points and original insights. For example, Braudel points out that, while the Crusades are usually seen as unmitigated folly in the West, and while they achieved nothing lasting on land, at their beginning the Mediterranean was dominated by Islam while at their end it was dominated by the West. This had important consequences limiting Islamic power and culture while removing constraints from those of the West. He's probably at his best dealing with the West and Islam, and at his worst dealing with Latin America. To his credit he doesn't pass over Africa as so many do, but gives it reasonable attention, describing among other things the great trading societies which grew up as a result of contact with Islam. His take on the United States is fairly sane, with useful analyses of the evolution of American capitalism and of the centralization of power and growth of bureaucracy in the Executive branch of the Federal government. But the section on the US has its share of romanticisms and a couple chauvinisms (that statement probably applies to all societies outside Europe, and perhaps to European ones as well). His take on the Soviet Union is balanced to slightly sympathetic, although it's odd that we never hear of the millions killed by Stalin (or Mao).

Braudel's rejection of traditional historical narrative, with its landmarks and mileposts, sometimes leaves you wondering what, where and when it is that he's talking about. More importantly, he has a great weakness for making overarching generalizations, usually devoid of rational arguments stocked with facts which might lead us to share his conclusions. It's often transparently obvious that these generalizations can neither explain the entire phenomenon they purport to explain, nor can the explanation be so simple. After a few of these you start to question Braudel's judgment. He also spends a fair amount of time contemplating then-contemporary problems and speculating about the future. He defends this, but his performance is unconvincing, particularly in light of events since he wrote (1962). All the same, for someone who doesn't expect this book to be comprehensive or even, and who reads it along with world histories which are, it's still worth reading for its strengths and for the not-infrequent original insights.
8 von 8 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
3.0 von 5 Sternen Great to Good 5. Februar 1999
Von Robertomelbourne - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Taschenbuch
It was always going to be difficult to write a book about Civilizations. The decision tree alone of what information to include/exclude would be a significant problem.
Braudel's thesis is that religion, culture and geography, together with traditional tools of history are all important in understanding civilizations. This is a true and accurate perspective.
He concentrates on Nth America, Europe, Asia, Islam and Africa. His chapter on Islam, and the first civilization studied, was outstanding and certainly he was able to tie in his thesis to this examination. However, I got the impression he got lazy, and ended up providing cobbled sketches of the other civilizations, and concentrating more on history than analysis. Hence why Great to good.
6 von 7 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen The "de-masculinization of history..." 24. Mai 2010
Von John P. Jones III - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Taschenbuch
Fernand Braudel first published this excellent, one-volume "history of the world" over 50 years ago. As Howard Zinn would later attempt in the United States, Braudel wanted to change how history was taught in France. He wanted to move away from what is now called the "Big Man" theory of history; that is, that all historical events are the results of the decisions of a very few men, who mainly lived in the West. He wanted to include numerous other factors, the lives of ordinary people, and their economic base, (and was admirably aided by Theodore Zeldin in this effort), and he strove for a greater emphasis on non-Western civilizations. In undertaking such an effort in the early `60's, he was ahead of his time, and to a very large measure, succeeded. Braudel is a synthesizer; striving for the "big picture" of historical actions, so it is only natural that early in his work he referenced the Hindu philosopher Chatterji, and his famous parable about the blind men and the various parts of the elephant that they can feel, yet cannot see or deduce the whole.

Others have criticized the amount of material covered on "other" civilizations (too much or too little); I felt it got it just about right. He starts, suitably enough, with the now very topical Islamic world. It was rather astonishing to have Braudel quoting from an Afghan intellectual, Najm oud-Din Bammat, on the requirements for Islam to undertake internal revolutions like the Reformation and the Enlightenment, and even that "...the Muslim countries are still waiting and searching for their Garibaldis." Braudel has been criticized for his thin section on Africa, less than 50 pages, before he moves on to the civilizations of the Far East, China, India, Japan and the "Maritime" countries, which he covers with 150 pages. Europe receives 120 pages; all of the Americas, 120 pages; a "nod" of 20 pages to the British Commonwealth countries, and he concludes with 50 pages on what was once called the Second World,--the Soviet Union, and associated "bloc" countries. The proportions in the coverage seem about right to me.

The book contains much that is prescient and insightful. Consider, on China: "In 1945, she was unable to make a motor-scooter; by 1963 she was on the brink of producing an atomic bomb." And what would he say now? On the concentration of power in the elites, consider his quote from Lenin: "If Tsarism could last for centuries thanks to 130,000 aristocratic feudal landowners with police powers in their regions, why should I not be able to hold out for a few decades with a party of 130,000 devoted militants?" (And indeed Lenin did!, before joining that proverbial dustbin). Braudel also covers why the world speaks English and not French, largely due to the fact that the English were sending out in the mid-18th Century a million colonists compared to 70,000 for the French, , since the latter had fears of becoming depopulated. And he gave a wonderful nod to one of my favorite cities, Avignon. The author's arguments on historical trends are cogent; his brush is broad, and the read enjoyable. He anticipated the "butterfly theory," without the name (the flapping of the wings of a proverbial butterfly in China might contribute to a tornado in Kansas). He did so by also referencing China, and spoke of the spread of the Chinese fashions of the T'ang period eventually reaching France, and the court of Charles VI; "... the heritage of a long vanished world-much as light still reaches us from stars already extinct."

Of course there are some flaws, and his political bias is sometimes extremely apparent. Concerning the Korean War, 1950-53, he uses the "party-line" term for the Chinese soldiers who intervened, calling them "volunteers" (p 272). And lawdy, did he ever get it wrong about America eventually adopting a European social model: "Despite special pleading by certain newspapers, Federal taxes are no longer seen as an unfair punishment imposed on the strong and able producers of wealth to benefit the lazy and incapable. Ever since the New Deal, the Federal Administration has been regarded `as essentially beneficent'..." No, it was the other way around, the so-called Reagan revolution, and assorted talk show hosts managed to paint government as "the problem," and helped spread the "revolution" to Europe, and weaken their social contract.

A wonderful view of the world from the perspective of historical research of the `60's. As Braudel says: "To see them (other civilizations) clearly one has to withdraw, mentally at least, from the civilization of which one is a part." The book also contains some excellent maps and charts. A wonderful, solid 5-star view of why things are the way they are.
11 von 15 Kunden fanden die folgende Rezension hilfreich
5.0 von 5 Sternen Grammaire des civilisations 23. September 2001
Von Advanced Calculus - Veröffentlicht auf Amazon.com
Format:Taschenbuch
This book is extraordinary! Meant for French lycéens in their last year before sitting for their bac exam, it was a failure. However, looking at today's situation of the west vis-à-vis the Islamic and other non-western worlds, it is a jewel. Among other things, it explains the origin of today's conflicting attitudes. For example, why the Egyptians and other Mediterranean peoples become in overwhelming majority Moslems several centuries after the conquest by the Arabs.
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